Societies have beliefs, about underlying universe nature, that result in worship of higher powers {religion}.


Religion involves faith, commitment, sacredness, miracles, feeling, mysticism, inspiration, religious language, and sacred writing. Religion involves heaven, hell, life after death, incarnation, immortality, and soul. Religion involves knowledge unity, integration, life meaning, universe causes, universe principles, universals, harmony, oneness, perfection, unity, and pluralism.

good and evil

Goodness and evil relate to sin, guilt, and forgiveness. Religion involves perfection, sin, morals, personal responsibility, laws, and free will.


Religion studies existence, proofs, nature, and attributes of gods.


Religious institutions have sacraments and rituals.


Rituals, emotions, beliefs, and rules differ in different cultures and religions, with many opposites.


Relieve fear and anxiety about death. Make people sacred. Control impulses. Control aggression. Provide consistent morals. Support social norms and values by sanctifying them. Ensure compliance with norms by emphasizing obedience, humility, and fatalism. Cleanse people of guilt. Provide fellowship. Provide beauty. Provide rituals for important family and social acts. Simplify life and thought but not too much. Posit spiritual world. Give outlet for prayer. Explain nature. Provide meaning to life. Provide beliefs, some supernatural. Provide power to dependent or weak. Provide significance. Provide identity. Provide group with shared moral beliefs. Give purpose to suffering and frustration. Give more meaning to victories and achievements.

natural religion

Religion {natural religion} can have no revelation, no miracles, no sacraments, and no clergy, only morals and God.



Spiritual things {holy}| can be supernatural, capricious, awe-inspiring, feared, mysterious, and exciting. Religions feature sense of union between self and holy power.


Objects or people can have meaning and value and be deserving of awe and reverence {sacred}|. Sacred people or objects inspire total emotional belief and moral commitment. People can worship artworks instead of the sacred {idolatry, sacred}. Religion has sacred, magic, fetish, or totem objects. Such objects associate with gods and magical powers.



People can study existence and nature of God {theology}|, in writings or teachings supposed to have come directly from God {revealed theology}. Theology is about reasons for and against belief in God.

natural theology

People can study nature to learn facts about God or support beliefs about God {rational theology} {natural theology}.



Something {god}| can be partially or wholly outside the physical universe and capable of affecting universe.

arguments for God

God must exist {ontological argument, God}. The physical universe proves that God exists {cosmological argument, God}. Universe purposes prove that God exists {teleological argument, God}. Hume and Kant disproved these arguments.

arguments against God

Perhaps, God does not exist. If evil exists, God cannot be completely good and cannot be all-powerful. The idea of God contains contradiction, because nothing is logical necessity. God cannot be omnipotent. God cannot be omniscient. God cannot be eternal.

Because people cannot ascertain truth of statements about God, such statements are meaningless. Attributes of God depend on human attributes and so do not necessarily apply to beings with no bodies. Spirits have no method of interacting with matter, unless they are part matter, or third substances mediate interactions.

No premises have universal acceptance as true. Valid reasoning is difficult about infinities or perfections.

disproofs of God

Supposed proofs of God have convincing disproofs that show contradictions. Today, theologians accept that there is no proof of God.


God can know people's experiences or know only what people's experiences are like. God can know things by standing outside time or by knowing everything to know at each instant. God can know choices that free wills can make, by observation or foreknowledge, or not know choices before, so self-limiting God's knowledge.

God can be the creator and have created and maintained physical and mental worlds. In Hebrew-Christian world-view, God created universe. The spirit of God moves universe. Man is the image of God. Souls have free will. The feeling of love is important in universe.

God can be essence.

God can be eternal and exist outside time and/or throughout time.

God can be good. God can be beneficent and compassionate. God can be sympathetic.

God can have no bound. However, God is finite, because physical quantities have quanta and are relativistic. Universe can have no bound but still be finite.

God can be intelligent and wise.

God can be like universe boundary, like being both inside and outside spherical surface. Boundary conditions define space points. God is then both immanent and transcendent. Universe is inside God and is the boundary of God.

God can be just.

God can be lawful and orderly in action.

God can expect duty, morality, submission, and other rights from humans.

God can be like mathematical law. If laws are necessary and sufficient, they organize themselves.

God can be mind with no viewpoint and have no body.

God gave commands to humans that establish right and wrong, commands are logically necessary, or both. God can be source of moral judgments. However, morals do not require God, because society and family are settings for moral development.

God has moral attributes. Good will triumph. God knows all and can do all. God wills that people do good. God does only good. God is just. God is merciful. God is loving. God wishes us to manifest his glory.

God can be powerful enough to change logic rules, alter past, and/or allow contradictions to exist simultaneously. Perhaps, God is self-constrained or otherwise constrained against doing these things.

God can be perfection.

God can be a person or personality. God is like a person, with will, agency, feelings, consciousness, and self. However, God is not like man, because God has no brain, glands, body, or human attributes. God can have no emotions, no will, no reason, no sense qualities or perception, and no free will.

God can be purposeful.

God can be self-subsisting and self-sufficient. God can be unconditioned.

Spirit is supernatural or mental substance or essence that is in or part of God. It has power to do things in physical world. It can be transmittable. It can have will. Holy Spirit of Christianity is the way that people know God. Soul receives it to give people Mind, which can then follow spiritual values. It allows people to partake of God or God's qualities. Thus, it enables people to tell true from false and good from evil, to have will and be able to choose, and to speak and know language. However, God is not spirit, because spirit, being non-physical, can have no direct affect on material world. Spirit cannot cause anything, because only physical things can affect physical things. No method exists by which people can detect spirit, because spirit does not affect mass-energy.

Substance is what is true reality, such as matter or mind. God can be fundamental substance, can just work with substance, or can have substance attributes. However, substance has no meaning actually. Underlying universe substrate has no such simple concepts.

God can be the highest or first reality. God can be the highest possible being. God can be logical or universal necessity.

God can be truth.

God can be unique.

God can be unknowable.

God can be will and be free to act immediately on all substances, without influences from other things.

existence of God

God is an existence that is in, as, and of itself. All God's attributes derive from this principle. However, God's possibility does not make necessity, because necessity and existence are about physical world. Existence is not a predicate.


atomic combinations

To make things, atoms must bond, requiring a conscious agent {argument from atomic combinations} {atomic combinations, argument}.

cosmological argument

Physical-universe existence proves that God exists {cosmological argument}. There must be a first existence, which is God. However, universe has vacuum energy and virtual particles, as well as quantum-mechanical laws.

cosmological proof

Proofs {cosmological proof} can be about causes or movements. Effects must have causes, so causal chain must go back to a beginning cause {First Cause, religion}, which is God. Things move, and movements must have previous movements, back to a beginning movement by a prime mover, unmoved by anything else.


God cannot be First Cause, because beginning cause presupposes universe exists, ready for first cause. God is not even about cause and effect, because causes must be physical or mathematical. If God is physical, physical laws limit God.

Universe power comes from its fundamental nature, that small volumes must have great energy, with no need for outside power sources. All things must always move, because motions are relative to observers, not absolute. All particles have intrinsic movements.

design argument

Arguments {design, argument} {argument from design} {argument from experience} can be about designing. Universe has unity, is in harmony, and has power and motion. It must have a designer, just as bodies and machines have designers and creators. God creates and designs universe.


The presence of evil, pain, social injustice, and natural disasters point to low harmony and poor design, as well as question whether God is good. Universe harmony is only appearance. At smallest level, universe has quanta and fragments. At greatest level, universe is relative. God does not need to design, because complex things can arise from simpler things by evolution.

eternal truths argument

Arguments {argument from eternal truths} {eternal truths argument} can be about truth. Statements are true or false. Statements must exist in minds. Statements about essences, but not existences, can be always true or always false and so must exist in eternal mind. The world has facts {contingent truth, God}, which must come from eternal truths by the principle of sufficient reason. Existences show that there must be eternal mind.


Essences are not necessarily real. Statements can exist in non-eternal minds. Truth can depend on time and location.

experiential proof

Proofs {experiential proof} {argument from religious experience} can be about experiences. Religious revelations and experiences are widespread and involve similar phenomena, so something or someone must inspire them. They can depend on God's existence and action. However, religious experiences are mental processes that depend on brain chemicals and activities, similar to other mental states. People do not yet know how mind works.

mental proof

Proofs {mental proof} can be about mind and ideas. People know that other people have minds, by analogy with themselves. People can then use analogy to think of an all-knowing mind. Mind has meaningful ideas and has a highest idea, the idea of God, which mystics and religious experience can reveal, in which there seems to be unity of everything and generalized meaning. However, people can always think of something that is one better than the one before it, so people cannot truly think of a highest thing.

mind proof

Proofs {mind proof} can be about mind. People have reason, mind, and imagination, whose cause is an all-intelligent being (C. S. Lewis). People are conscious and are part of God's consciousness or can experience God's consciousness, mind, or spirit. Universe has evolved higher intelligence forms, continuing even now, and God allows this by continual creation. However, no one yet knows how mind works. Evolution can build mind. Consciousness requires brains.

moral proof

Proofs {moral proof} can be about morals. People have consciences and know moral laws. People can fail to follow moral laws or conscience and then feel this failure. This feeling is not about conditioning or self-interest, so God must have put moral laws and conscience in people (Kant). However, people develop feelings and ideas socially and can develop guilty feelings even about moral acts.

ontological argument

God must exist because things exist {ontological argument}. There must be a first existence, which is God. However, universe has vacuum energy and virtual particles, as well as quantum-mechanical laws.

ontological proof

Proofs {ontological proof} {argument ex consensu gentium} can be about perfection. God is perfection, the most perfect, most bountiful, and most knowledgeable. People have a mental concept of highest or perfect being, God, with all possible attributes. Only actual existence of such being can give people this idea, so it must actually exist (Anselm). Perhaps, belief in God is part of man's nature. Universe perfection allows people to know imperfection.

However, people can always think of something that is one better than the one before it, so people cannot truly think of a highest thing.

perfection proof

Proofs {perfection proof of God} can be about perfection or goodness. Because things are more or less good, true, and so on, there must be something that is the highest truth, goodness, and so on. However, there does not have to be only one.

purpose proof

Proofs {purpose proof of God} can be about purpose. Because all things act toward goals, even if without mind, so there must be a highest goal or purpose. However, there does not have to be only one.

teleological proof

Proofs {teleological proof} {argument from design with teleology} {argument from analogy} {teleological argument, religion} can be about purpose. Universe is infinitely complex, has order, and has purpose. There must be an intentional mind or intelligent designer to make the universe. God sets the purpose or is the purpose. However, natural selection designs organisms without purposes. Teleology depends on finding purposes, and universe has no clear purposes.


causa sui

God causes itself {causa sui}. However, causes must already exist, so causing oneself cannot cause one's existence. Most theologians state that God has no cause, because God is necessary.


God can have created universe {creator}, have only given form or laws to universe, or be separate from universe. God created one universe from nothing, and God can modify all matter and events. God can have created it all at one time or creates it continuously.

However, God is not creator of everything, because organisms evolve and physical things make random combinations. Universe is not a machine or body. Matter and energy had to have intrinsic laws to exist, so God cannot have added laws or form. God cannot be separate, because universe is what is.


God can be sacred and/or supernatural {divine, God}. People can have a divine essence or part that can have personal relations with the Divine.


God can be in everything {immanence}|. However, God is not immanent, because space is not continuous but quantized. Infinitesimal space parts are always different and always changing, because small volumes have tremendous energies. Space contracts, expands, and curves over time, because space is dynamic. Time flow is not smooth and continuous but quantized.


God can be all-powerful {omnipotence} {omnipotent}. However, God is not omnipotent, because physical quantities have quanta, are uncontrollable during transitions, have random elements, are relativistic, and take time, so God cannot act immediately and simultaneously.


God can be everywhere at once {omnipresent}|.


God can perceive and know all {omniscience} {omniscient}. God can know everything about past, present, and future. However, God is not omniscient, because Gödel's proof shows that one system cannot contain all true things. Physical quantities are relativistic, so no one viewpoint exists. Physical quantities have quanta, so instruments cannot observe transitions.

supreme being

Because nothing has existed always, something makes and destroys all things, and that something must have supreme being {supreme being}, existing in itself with no other cause. However, there does not have to be only one.


God can be above or around everything {transcendence} {transcendent}. God can stand outside time, space, and mind and transcend universe. However, God is not transcendent, because signals cannot reach all space simultaneously but travel at light speed. There is no absolute space or time to occupy. Space parts appear different relative to different observers. Space itself can expand and contract over time.

via negativa

God can be unknowable. People can only know what God is not {via negativa}, such as not animal.


agnosticism about God

People can never know anything about God, spirits, or souls {agnosticism about God}. People can only know material world.


No God or gods exist {atheism}|.

deism religion

Only one God exists. God is separate from material world {deism}|. God created material world according to laws and then left it alone. Such a god is not personal and does not answer prayers or care about humans. Abstract religion emphasized duty, modesty, charity, and tolerance.


Only one God exists {monotheism}|. God does not take material form or takes only one form. God has will and spirit and thinks like people think.


Only one God exists. God is in everything, and everything is part of God {pantheism}|.


Many god-like beings {polytheism}| live forever in higher world than Earth, can visit Earth and people, and can take any form.

religious humanism

Humanism {religious humanism}| can emphasize people and values, to make better lives. Humanism de-emphasizes mysticism, miracles, and rituals.


Spirits or souls are free to inhabit any object {spiritism}| {polydaemonism}. If spirits can enter or leave people, people must prevent bad spirits from entering and good spirits from leaving. Ancestor spirits are around constantly.


Believing in a higher world {supernaturalism}| emphasizes spirit world and good spirit {angel, spirit} and bad spirit {devil, spirit} actions.

theism religion

Only one God exists. God is or has spirit {theism}| that is both immanent in everything in world and transcendent above everything in world.

theistic naturalism

Naturalism {theistic naturalism} can emphasize God's immanent presence in world as force of spiritual values. People can know God by this presence.



Almost all objects have psychology, soul, or spirit {animism, religion}|, which can cause harm or good, just as people can.


Animists often believe that universe has capricious power {mana} {animism, mana}, of which people must be in awe and careful.


Animism often includes rules {taboo}| to prevent bad luck and gain good luck.



People can have a spirit or spiritual body {soul}| {spirit}.


People can have only one soul. Perhaps, people can have demons or angels.


Souls can continuously exist from universe beginning or can begin at conception or birth. Souls can survive after death or not.

Souls can exist in spiritual world, in heaven or hell, in human bodies, independently of body, in animal bodies, or in all living things.


Souls can have different personalities, be the same, or be similar parts of larger soul-like things, such as God.

Souls can be eternal, be separate, and have history. Souls can be part of, and within, eternal divine memory.

Souls can be eternal divine views of present earthly existence.

Souls can represent eternal moral qualities of present life, with no further existence after death.

Souls can be person essence.

However, mind or essence comes from brain processes and structures, not necessarily from God. Souls can be anything, because they are not physical, and so do not carry meaning in physical world.


Body spiritual essence or mind is permanent, cannot change, and has no intellect. Souls connect to body mental faculties and are its individuality. Perhaps, souls have conscious life, involving decisions, actions, and responsibilities.


Because animals can perceive, do they have souls?


Most religions say spiritual life can continue after death {immortality}| {life after death, soul}. Religions can say that spiritual life exists before birth.


Life after death can take several forms. Minds can continue, without any bodies. Minds can merge into collective mind. Perhaps, people have no minds but start completely different existences.


People have claimed that immortality indications are possible. Dreams show that spirit remains even when people are unconscious. People can affect others even after their deaths, so effects have spiritual cause. Most body changes do not alter human mind, and mind can alter without apparent body changes.


Perhaps, souls can be mortal {mortalism} {mortalist heresy}.

psyche soul

spiritual essence or mind {psyche}|.


Perhaps, spiritual essence, mind, or psyche can move to another body {metempsychosis} {transmigration}|, which then has life.

6-Religion-Spirit Being

angel in religion

good spirit {angel, religion}|.


bad spirit {devil, religion}|.

6-Religion-Unity of Explanation

unity of explanation

One reason can relate all objects, events, and ideas {unity of explanation}|. Explanation can cover all history, from before space-time to after end. Unifying principles can integrate all knowledge categories. One story can answer all major questions and problems.


Explanations can be stories, in which humans play significant parts. History can include how human mind arose, what it is, and how it will change in the future. Stories can become better, as human history proceeds and humans gain more knowledge about universe and themselves. Countries, cultures, religions, philosophies, groups, and people have stories.

Limited knowledge and limited expression power cause stories to be part true and part false. Reasonable stories can be logically complete and consistent and not contradict known facts. Such stories can be the consensus of the worldwide community of educated people, from multiple countries, cultures, religions, philosophies, and groups. Good stories can foster international community of educated, humane, and objective people, by providing common knowledge, upon which they can improve.

people purpose

Why are there people? Why do gods need people? Why did gods make people?

People can be just accidents of history and not be necessary results of physical events.

People can be necessary, but their attributes are accidents of evolution and genetics.

people purpose: gods

Gods, using faculty like human will, can make people for reasons. Perhaps, gods needed people to fulfill purposes in universe. Perhaps, gods needed people for companionship. Perhaps, gods needed praise and respect. Perhaps, spirits of people affect spiritual world, or spiritual world needs them. Perhaps, people can freely choose, and so their actions constrain God's freedom and will.

In organized religions, God requires people to do God's work and God's purposes in the world, and God has plan for people.

In Christianity, God created people to provide fellowship for God and to love, obey, have faith in existence of, and serve God. They have life from God. People should be good, not evil.


People can prove something false, by giving counterexample or showing contradiction. It is hard to prove something true, because counterexample or contradiction can only become apparent after obtaining more knowledge.

deus ex machina

God was creator but then let everything move on its own {deus ex machina}|.


Religions have theories about death and universe end {eschatology}|.


psychology of religion

Religion involves psychology {psychology, religion} {religion, psychology}.


Religion can express emotions, such as humility, reverence, awe, ecstasy, joy, and terror. Religion allies with art.

mystical experience

People can have unwilled short ineffable feelings of insight.

religious behavior

Religion seeks perfection through good behaviors. Pray. Fast. Sacrifice wants. Have patience. Seek unity with God. Be content. Concentrate on ideal things. Be humble. Do good works. Give alms. Contribute money. Worship. Tell truth. Honor oaths. Obey God. Repent sin. Serve. Perform rituals. Fear God. Live in harmony with other people. Respect people. Be serious and solemn. Trust in God. Have joy in faith. Be at peace with oneself. Resign oneself to fate. Be conscious of duty.

religious experience

Religions appear to have arisen from personal experiences. Religious experiences follow periods of uneasiness. Then insight grasps solution. People feel sense of wholeness and sense of something given from outside, without asking for it, without earning it. From such experiences, people can infer a giver. Givers can be something unseen outside person and have power to do amazing things.

Myths of flight and ascension suggest escape from one mode of being to another. Religious feeling can manifest as speaking in tongues, trembling, writhing, or religious possession.


People can have a dependency need {dependency attitude} {amaeru}.


People can have is total emotional belief {faith, religion}|.



People can follow a simple life of mediation and prayer {asceticism}, with few goods and few personal pleasures.

conversion religion

People can have sudden changes {conversion, religion}| in behavior from immoral to moral or from passive acceptance of faith to active spiritual life. Beliefs exchange for new beliefs. People can experience strong religious feelings {religious ecstasy, conversion} and change spiritual orientation.


Conversion happens after religious and psychological preparation. Conversion happens after exhaustion or frustration. Conversion ends tension and conflict. Conversion can accompany belief in people's sinfulness, personal sense of sin, need for removing sin, religious faith, and heightened emotion.


People feel energy, joy, peace, and calmness. Conversion is passionate. Conversion surrenders self to outside control or direction. No single trait distinguishes converted people from others.


Prayers {prayer}| can be petitions, sin confessions, communions, or meditations.

revelation in psychology

People can have a feeling of receiving insight from God or angels {revelation, psychology}.

sin religion

Religion prohibits behaviors {sin, religion}|, such as divorce, blasphemy, usury, drinking alcohol, gambling, eating certain foods, revenge, swearing, taking God in vain, and worshipping idols. Religion often prohibits expressing bodily desires for food or sex. Religion often discourages feeling pride and loving material things, including people. Religion denounces failure to give alms or contribute money. Main sins {deadly sins} {seven deadly sins} are lust, greed, pride, envy, sloth, wrath, and gluttony.

speaking in tongues

Religious feeling can manifest as guttural syllables sounding like speech {speaking in tongues}|, trembling, writhing, or religious possession.



Religion has communities of believers or practitioners {believer}.


People can belong to small believing groups {cult}. Cult membership indicates need to have guru and to have dependency need. Cults emphasize immediate happiness and contentment. Cults also stress ritual purity.

fellowship in religion

Religion features sense of common purpose and fellowship {fellowship, religion}|.


People can worship artworks instead of the sacred {idolatry, religion}|.


Church meetings {revival}| can heighten religious feeling and typically feature dramatic preaching about sin, hell, and damnation.


Religion has sacred symbolic behaviors {ritual}|.

sacrifice as ritual

Rituals {sacrifice, ritual}| can open communication between sacred and profane. One gives up something to make later gain.


Sects split from another church {schism}|.

theological seminary

People at religious schools {theological seminary} can train to preach and minister.



Religious people typically belong to religious associations {church}. Churches can be loose groups, have high institutionalization, or have full integration with society {ecclesia, church}.


Protestant Christian churches {denomination}| are separate and depend on family or primary group.


Churches {sect}| can have strict doctrine, high commitment, intolerance of others, and critical view of society. Sects split from another church by schism.

6-Religion-Sociology-Religion Types

communal religion

Religion and society {communal religion} integrate in many communities.

evangelical religion

Religion {evangelical religion} can seek to spread doctrine or belief among non-believers, typically using missionaries and witnessing to try to convert others to their religion.

fundamentalism in religion

Religion {fundamentalism, religion}| can require members to adhere to simple, strict behavioral code and believe in simple, strict ideology. It can be reaction to social complexity, immorality, excess, and disorder. It can be reaction to poverty and hopelessness. It can be reaction to preserve personal or group identity. It can have belief that people are bad and need controls.

mainstream religion

Religion {mainstream religion} can emphasize church-going, good works, faith, and fellowship. It does not emphasize doctrine or evangelism.


People can live in wholly religious community {monasticism}|.



There have been 100,000 religions {religions}.

Ajivikai system

In a nonVedic system {Ajivikai system}, selves go through 84,000 births, lives, and deaths, to pass through all stages of being and become human, and then achieve transcendence and release. Actions and demeanors show current being level. Asceticism, virtue, vice, human will, and human acts cannot affect progression of lives. There is no freedom. All things connect.


Buddhism religion

A Vedanta Hinduism extension {Buddhism} can emphasize compassion and self-denial.


Buddhism is a method, a way to heal oneself. People should have pure awareness, have unity, and live in the present. Simple Buddhism has no creed or mythology about this world or the next.


People actually have no egos, only body willings, sense qualities, perceptions, and desires.


People can control such thoughts, with no need to extinguish them by harsh measures. Through control, people gain freedom from desire and new relation to seemingly outer world. People gain self-composure, serenity, and calmness. Next, outer world disappears, in favor of inner being. People can lose their thoughts and desires and surrender self, to find their inner being. After enlightenment, people no longer need Buddhism.

illusion of the world

The world of things and people is many and transient {illusion of the world}. People are only physical forms, sensations, feelings, judgments, and dispositions. Knowledge categories are only imprecise thing and people groups. In Buddhism, cause ends when effect begins.


Mind is unable to lead people to Truth or express Truth and so is not important. Mind perceives only true-reality projections and so sees world as real and outside self. Mind values things in world. Desires and perceptions lead to ignorance of Truth.

physical relation

Physical objects are all the same in essence. Physical objects can have different relations to other things.


Buddhism has no ideas of sin or guilt.


Esoteric Buddhism has gods.

In Japan, Daibutsu is the Grand Buddha. There is Newborn Buddha. Kangiten Shoten is Sacred Heaven. Jizo is Guardian of the Soul. Kannon is Mercy. Bishamon is Fortune. Fugen is Long Life. Kishimojin is patron of children. Arhan is holy disciple of Buddha. Inary is rice bearer. Oni is Gatekeeper of Hell. Benten is music and arts. Fudo is fire. Emma is Judge of the Dead.

In China, Shou Xing is god of longevity. Guan Yin is goddess of compassion. Duke Guan is god of war and literature. Cai Shen is god of wealth.


Ashada Purnima is first sermon of Buddha after attaining Mahaparinirvana in Kosi. Full Moon of Vaisakha is birth of Buddha. Vaisakha Purnima honors when Buddha attained bodhi or nirvana.


Buddhism has meditation styles. Recollection of the Buddha is a method. Vipassana or Insight is about breathing. Loving-kindness is about generalized compassion. Tantric Buddhism Wind mediation is about breath and spirit.

Chag-zôg Tibetan Buddhism meditations include Kargyü-School Great Seal meditations and Nying-ma or Ancient-School Great Perfection meditations. Focused Attention is on object or thought. Open Presence concentrates on object, thought, or image, to get to pure awareness. Non-Referential Compassion is a Loving-kindness meditation, including Sevenfold Causal Instructions, Equanimitous Exchange of Self and Other, and Giving and Taking.

bodhi in Buddhism

People can have awakening {bodhi, Buddhism}.

Buddha nature

In Buddhism, people have connections to, and/or are part of, true reality {Buddha nature}.


People have a conscious state {citta}.


People have belief or false belief {ditthi}.


People have mental pain {domanassa}, including grief.


People can know that no "other" or outside world exists {enlightenment}, only their being. After enlightenment, people no longer need Buddhism. All is void.

karma in Buddhism

Voluntary actions have three causes {seeds of destiny} of destiny {karma, Buddhism}. They depend on former, current, and future acts. Karma can change by choosing different living styles.


Buddhism has three created worlds {lokas}: desires, pure forms with no desires, and no forms. People discover these worlds in sequence by going to deeper consciousness states.


Extinction {nibbana} is the highest goal, to quiet greed, hatred, and ignorance and reach unconditioned state.


World has signs or images {nimitta}.

nirvana in Buddhism

People can be compassionate, friendly, clear-minded, and calm {nirvana, Buddhism}. Even nirvana itself loses all meaning after it happens. Achieving nirvana is the same as samsara. Nirvana is not a state or heaven.


People can have wisdom or understanding {panna}.

samadhi in Buddhism

People can have concentration {samadhi, Buddhism}.


In Buddhism, one can achieve serene and mindful mental state {sammapatti, Buddhism} by meditation. It is the highest dhamma.


People can have proper conduct or moral rule {sila}.


People can have mental happiness {somanssa}.


People can have bodily pleasure or happiness {sukha}.


The Pali-Canon Three-Baskets {Tripitka} are for discipline, discourse, and extra doctrine.

Triple Gem

Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha {Triple Gem}.

Twelve Bases

The senses or ways of knowing {Twelve Bases} are internal or external. Internal are eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body, and mind. External are objects, sounds, odors, tastes, and mental objects.


People can have clinging or attachment {upadana} to ways of knowing, sense qualities, perspectives, rules/rituals, and self.


Sense qualities {upekkha} can be neither pleasant nor painful.


Feelings or sense qualities {vedana} are sukha, dukkha, somanssa, domanassa, and upekkha.

Wheel of Becoming

Ignorance causes karma, which causes knowledge types, which causes body knowledge, which causes the five senses, which cause object knowledge, which causes experiencing, which causes desire, which causes grasping, which causes rebirth, which causes decay, which causes death {Becoming Wheel} {Wheel of Becoming}.


bhakti in Buddhism

Buddhism has devotions {bhakti}.

Eightfold Path

Path to enlightenment {Eightfold Path} includes right belief or view, resolve, speech, conduct, occupation, effort, contemplation or mindfulness, and concentration or ecstasy. In Buddhism, following Eightfold Path eliminates desire and suffering and breaks the reincarnation chain. Eightfold Path is middle way between materialism and ascetism.

Five Precepts

Do not kill, steal, have sexual misconduct, use false speech, or use intoxicants nor become heedless {Five Precepts}.

Four Foundations of Mindfulness

Contemplate body, feelings, perceptions/thoughts, and consciousness as themselves {Four Foundations of Mindfulness}.

prayer wheel

In Buddhism, wheels {prayer wheel} with many rolled-up mantras can spin during meditation.


Mahayana Buddhism has a liberation-from-self method {soteriology}.


In Buddhism, meditation exercises {Insight Meditation} are to develop insight or tranquility and concentration to achieve pure insight and tranquility {vipassana}.

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Five Aggregates

Five causal or conditioned existence parts {Five Aggregates} form being: matter, feelings, perceptions, mental states or thoughts, and consciousness.


Mind {nama} is one of the Five Aggregates.


Matter {rupa} is one of the Five Aggregates.

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Four Noble Truths

Buddhism has four statements {Four Noble Truths} {Four Truths}. Existence is constant suffering and sorrow. Ignorance/illusion and desire cause suffering, by grasping existing world. People can suppress suffering by ending desire, ego, illusion, and ignorance. People can reach nirvana.

marga in Buddhism

The middle way {marga, Buddhism} {middle path} is the Eightfold Path that ends dissatisfaction and suffering and liberates. It is one of the Four Noble Truths. According to Buddhism, people should follow the middle path, between worldly desires and harsh asceticism and discipline, and avoid both skepticism and dogma.

nirodha Buddhism

People can end {nirodha} dissatisfaction and suffering. It is one of the Four Noble Truths.

samudaya Buddhism

Desire/grasping {samudaya} causes dissatisfaction and suffering. It is one of the Four Noble Truths.


dukkha Buddhism

Life is dissatisfactory {dukkha} or has suffering. It is one of the Four Noble Truths. All life is dissatisfactory always. Dukkha is one of three truths or marks of existence.


Self is a name only, not reality {anatman} {anatta} {annatta} {no-self}. Self has no permanence and no substance. Anatman is one of three truths or marks of existence.

anitya Buddhism

Material things and all existence are not permanent {anitya}. Anitya is one of three truths or marks of existence.

6-Religion-Religions-Buddhism-Triple Body

Triple Body

People can have transformation, enjoyment, and void {Triple Body}. Transformation is all things, events, and forms.

dharma in Buddhism

Doctrine {dharma, Buddhism} can mean reality, truth, physical law, physical nature, proper conduct, duty, justice, impartiality, mental state, or cause.

karuna in Buddhism

Enjoyment is physical-world compassion or knowledge {karuna, Buddhism}.

prajna in Buddhism

Void or Suchness is wisdom, intuition, and knowledge {prajna, Buddhism}.



Buddhist monks {arhat} can have obtained enlightenment.


Thai for Buddhist monk {bhikku}.


Living in the forest {forest-dweller} can remove suffering and defilement.

Luang Poh

Older and respected monk {Luang Poh} is Venerable Father.


Thai title for Buddhist monk {Phra}.


Beginning monks {samanera} can take the Three Refuges and observe the Ten Precepts.


Buddhist community or Thailand monk {sangha}.



Buddhist temple {Ambhavan} is in Singhburi, north of Bangkok.


Thai county {Nai Amphur} {Amphur} of province has a sheriff.


Thailand capital {Ayudhya} [1350 to 1767] and province north of Bangkok.


Thai province {changwat}.


Thai ward or province district {amphur} {Tambon}.


ceremonial hall or monastery building {uposatha}.


Thai for Buddhist temple {wat}.


Buddhist sect

Sects {Buddhist sect} are Lamaism, Mahayana Buddhism, Hinayana Buddhism, Tantric Buddhism, Vajrayana Buddhism, and Zen Buddhism.


Buddhism is a vehicle or ferry {yana} to liberate oneself from desire, through enlightenment.


Hinayana Buddhism is the small boat or stricter way. Sri Lanka, Burma, and south India are Hinayana Buddhist or Theravada Buddhist. Mahayana Buddhism is the large boat or more varied way and includes Zen Buddhism, Pure Land Buddhism, and Lotus Buddhism. North India, China, Korea, Vietnam, and Japan are Mahayana Buddhist. Mahayana Buddhism strengthened as Sakas and Yueh-Chi peoples moved into India. Vajrayana Buddhism is the diamond way or boat. Tibet and Mongolia are Vajrayana Buddhist.


Mahayana Buddhism features an infinite number of buddhas {Buddhology}, some related to heaven and some representing ideals. It has no solitary buddhas {pratyeka-buddha}. Monks do not become enlightened like buddhas, so it has no arhats. People should strive to become buddhas.

Esoteric Buddhism

Buddhism {Esoteric Buddhism}, derived from Hinduism, can have deities.


Tibet has a Buddhist tradition {Dzogchen}.


Tibet has a Buddhism form {Lamaism} [700] similar to Mahayana Buddhism. Dalai Lama has been divine ruler of Tibet since 1640.

Vajrayana Buddhism

Buddhism {Vajrayana Buddhism} can be the diamond way, boat, or vehicle. Tibet and Mongolia are Vajrayana Buddhist.

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Hinayana Buddhism religion

The first formal Buddhism {Hinayana Buddhism} was stricter.


Hinayana Buddhism requires a strict program of self-control and effort. Hinayana Buddhism believes that enlightenment requires becoming a monk and following strict law.


Buddha said, "All things are without self". Hinayana Buddhists expanded this idea to say that all things and ego are only infinitesimal moments and transient particles. Moment chains and particle aggregations appear as individuals. Nirvana ends delusion that momentary things are real.

momentariness doctrine

Nothing is permanent {doctrine of momentariness} {momentariness doctrine} {Sautranika}, because effects differ. Reality is causes. People's thoughts are separate chains of reality. Outside events can affect thoughts, but thoughts are separate from exterior physical world. Suffering is part of the thought chain, and external physical world does not cause it. Sautrantika School purported to use secret meaning of Buddha's sermons and dialogues.


School {Sarvastivadin} {Realists} was last of early Hinayana schools and believes in 75 dharmas or substances.

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Mahayana Buddhism religion

Later formal Buddhism {Mahayana Buddhism} is less strict than Hinayana Buddhism.

physical world

The physical world is an illusion or magic show. The physical world always changes and is endless. All physical-world things depend on all others. Physical world is unreal Void.

essence of reality

The quintessence or real in things has attributes and activities. Attributes and activities can change, but quintessence does not change. All things are only such as they are in essence: "thus being thus". Essence has no description, because nothing else can describe it. Essence only describes itself. To people, the essence is the Void, because people cannot know fundamental reality.


Real knowledge is not about language, concepts, perceptions, thinking, or world. True reality has no description. People can only experience it or have awareness of it.


Madhyamika School is about the void. Sautrantika School is about realism through representation and causation. Vaibhasika School is about realism by direct experience. Yogacara School is about idealism and subjectivity.


All things in reality are Buddha things, so all people have Buddha nature in them and should try for Buddhahood. Bodhisattva worship is good.

behavior: method

People must strip away world from one's nature, to reveal Self. The first step toward true reality is to realize the unreality of all that one sees or knows and to resolutely set out to reach true reality. The next steps involve removing these influences from one's life: ending desire, building concentration, and quieting mind's active criticism and attention to detail. Finally, one can enter various states of insight {cosmic consciousness, Buddhism}, in which one feels at one with the universe in mystical state. Mahayana Buddhism allows yoga, Buddhism, Hindu rituals, and asceticism.

Buddha bodies

Buddha has three bodies. Gautama's historical body {nirmanakaya} existed on Earth. Transfigured body {sambhogakaya} exists in paradise. Transcendent cosmic-buddha body {dharmakaya} is identical with ultimate reality.

atman in Buddhism

People have inner being or Self {atman, Buddhism}, which is independent, is imperishable, is unchanging, is not part of physical world, is not a created thing, cannot appear to senses, and cannot appear to will or by willing. Knowledge of this self must guide life.

Obtaining true awareness of inner self completely changes one's life and is the way to transcend the physical world. Such awareness is realizing that the physical world is an illusion, is purely material, and is fleeting and contradictory. People should show no interest but strive for true reality. Even mind, personality, and subconscious are part of physical world.


In Mahayana Buddhism, people who are about to enter nirvana can stay at pre-nirvana stage {bodhisattva}, out of compassion, to comfort and save other beings. They are completely indifferent and without ego but lead others to Buddhahood. They can resolve time as samsara and eternity as nirvana into one Void or suchness. Virtue causes power. Their potential perfection is still in world and yet is inexhaustible. They take delight, because suffering has ended. They can never relapse to ego state, because they have reached perfection. They value nothing of world and so give away all, without holding back or thought of consequences. They completely devote themselves to others' benefit.

They stay in world to represent compassion of the Void and universe. They are part of the Void and yet themselves. They can move about in the Void timelessly. They have boundless energy and are able to play as the Void does.

Bodhisattva shows the idea that the Buddha has renounced nirvana until all creatures have also attained it. Bodhisattvas embody compassion of all Buddhas.

famous ones

Buddhism has Four Great Bodhisattva. In Mahayana Buddhism, Lotus Sutra and Heart Sutra are about Avalokitesvara, Avalokiteshvara, Guan Yin, or Kannon. Vajrayana Buddhism has Padmapani, Holder of the Lotus. Theravada Buddhism has Lokesvara. Tibetan Buddhism has Chenrezig, Shadakshari, or Lord of the Six Syllables. The Dalai Lama manifests Avalokitesvara.

Ksitigarbha in India, Ti-tsang in China, Jizo Bosatsu in Japan, Earth Store Bodhisattva, or Di Zang in China founded everything. In Ksitigarbha Sutra or Earth Store Sutra, Buddha named Earth Store Bodhisattva the leading Buddhist until time of the next Buddha {Maitreya}. Enma or Yama, King of Hell, is an incarnation and is master of the Six Paths of Hell, Ghost, Animal, Man, Asura, and Deva.


Destined bodhisattva gains knowledge by action, to see consequences. He gains knowledge by role-playing. He sacrifices himself. He performs virtuous deeds. He suppresses display and pride. He performs acts that attract good karma and leave no room for bad karma. He acts as if he were bodhisattva already. He transcends and thereafter behaves perfectly by instinct alone. He sees the potential Buddhahood of all things clearly.

maya in Buddhism

The physical world is an illusion {maya, Buddhism}, is purely material, and is fleeting and contradictory.

sunyata in Buddhism

Bases of both true reality and physical world are unknowable and are void itself {sunya} {sunyata, Buddhism}.

Trikaya Doctrine

Buddha has Three Bodies {Trikaya Doctrine}. The nirmana-kaya, apparent body, or created body is in time and space. The body {sambhoga-kaya} of mutual bliss or enjoyment is an archetype. Dharma-kaya or Reality body is enlightenment.

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A Mahayana-Buddhism school {Avatamsaka}, based on Avatamsaka Sutra, stresses unity and interrelations [1 to 100]. It affected Zen.

Pure Land

Sukhavati {Pure Land School} of Mahayana Buddhism states that faith in the Buddha of Boundless Light or Amitabha can achieve nirvana [1 to 100]. The Buddha of Limitless Light or Life developed and spread in China, Vietnam, Korea, and Japan and is largest sect in Buddhism. The Five Wisdom Buddhas are Amitabha, Vairocana, Akshobhya, Ratnasambhava, and Amogasiddhi.

School of the Great Delight

Schools {School of the Great Delight} can emphasize love and compassion [800]. School of the Great Delight uses sexual symbolism to show opposing universe properties, such as male and female and Void and Universe. Yab-Yum is the united couple.


People know things either through senses or by inference. Both ways have causal sequences {Vaibhasika} {everything exists school}. Suffering comes from outside world, but it is not enduring, because all events and objects are momentary. Some reality, such as space and nirvana, is permanent. Past, present, and future are real.


Mahayana-Buddhism schools {Yogacara School} {mind-only school} can be monistic.


All things are mental, with no external objects. Things do not grow, extend, have duration, or have succession. Such properties are thought-manifestations. Experience cannot separate from awareness content. The world's creating principle is thought or ideation {vijnana, Yogacara}, not material substance. Thoughts and ego depend on vijnana. Mind contains the potential and the material for all possible thoughts. Thought material is not a thing and has no attributes but is sunya void itself and has suchness.


The Void is pure consciousness, thought, reason, and prajna wisdom, as stated in Vedanta.

The eight consciousness types are the five senses, sense consciousness, classifier/discriminator, and stored consciousness of potential forms.


Compassion is pure reflex of Void. Universe itself is compassion, because its parts manifest the Void.

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Individuals surrender ego through love and passion for the principle or God that caused their existence, to become part of the whole and gain happiness {Tantra} {Tantric Buddhism}. Tantra is to ensure happy life on Earth, to ensure one is in heaven after life, and eventually to reach liberation. Tantra uses pleasures of the world to progress higher. People rise through participation, not rejection.


Tantra is return to Vedas. Tantra and popular Hinduism use sacred-word repetition and emphasize the positive side of maya, manifestations in the world. All things are real, holy, and pure. Universe changes are also real. The Void is consciousness, being, and bliss, all together and at once. People are always part of universe as real beings and consciousnesses.


In Tantra, there are no castes, and women can participate.


Tantric initiates usually devote themselves to the goddess Maya-Sakti, consort of all gods. She is also Mahamaya, the World Illusion, because her power is what sustains physical world.

Initiates worship the goddess in different ways, depending on state. They worship her as bride, if they have rajas. They worship her as mother, if they have tamas. They worship her as servant, if they have sattva.

Initiates repeat mantras: prayers, incantations, and holy words. They make offerings. They envision the goddess in love and devotion. Initiates typically have images of the goddess. Ritual summons the goddess, from deep within. Self-surrender and service to the goddess lead to realization that inner self is the goddess.


In Tantric Buddhism, individuals are not important, only whole. People should do their duty or role in the world, as ritual and service.


Tantric yoga has enjoyment {bhoga} of both joy and suffering.

Five M's

Tantric rituals often use the five forbidden things {Five M's}: wine, meat, fish, parched grain, and sexual intercourse.

moksa in Buddhism

Tantra says release {moksa, Buddhism} is not the highest goal. Moksa is meaningless, because all is Void.

nirvana in Tantric

Tantra depends on the idea, "Who seeks nirvana" {nirvana, Tantra}.


Tantric initiates {sadhaka} enjoy bliss in knowledge of goddess.


Acts are religious rituals {yajna}. Tantric rituals often use the Five M's. Sex has a highly symbolic role. All things are divine and pure in Tantrism, even forbidden things. In Tantrism, overcoming seeming darkness of forbidden things releases from guilt and provides full realization.

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Zen Buddhism {dhyana} {zen} says that there are many different yogas.


People can learn to suspend physical and mental responses, such as judgment and analysis, to stimuli. Zazen open meditation is consciousness without response.

no dogma

In Japan, Buddhism has no dogma but emphasizes realizing inner being through meditation and discipline.


Buddhism in Japan has Rinzai School.

Zen arts

Zen arts are tea ceremony, flute playing, archery, fencing, ju-jitsu, and brush drawing.

dhyana in Zen Buddhism

In yoga of pure Self-contemplation {dhyana, Zen}, mind concentrates on one thing.


Understanding or enlightenment can come in altered consciousness states {kensho}.


Philosophical puzzles {koan} about life can have no solution, show that truth changes depending on perspective, or show that there is no truth. "That which can be taken away from you is not worth keeping, and that which cannot be taken away from you, why should you be afraid of its being taken away?" Osho Zen Tarot. "Who am I?" "What is this?"


Christianity religion

Religions {Christianity} can emphasize that God sacrificed Jesus to atone for human sins.


Sunday is holy day. Religious holidays are the following. Epiphany {Fête des Rois} is January 6, the 12th Night after Christmas, when the three kings visited baby Jesus. Candlemas is Mary's purification on February 2. St. Valentine's Day is February 14. Palm Sunday is Sunday before Easter. Easter is resurrection day, on Sunday between March 22 and April 25. Walpurgis Nacht is eve of May Day in central Europe. Eve of St. John is midsummer. Assumption is August 15. All Souls' Day or Day of the Dead, to pray for the dead, is on November 1. Christmas is birth of Jesus, on December 25 or January 6. Holy Innocent's Day is December 28. St. Sylvester's Day is New Years Eve.


People can have charity {agape}, or love of, and respect for, God.

Bible book

Christians believe that their holy book {Bible} is God's word and guides conduct and faith. The Bible is Christian scripture.


The Bible has Old Testament of Judaic scriptures. New Testament has the following books. The Gospel books of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John give accounts of Jesus' life. Acts of the Apostles describes works of the apostles. There are 21 letters to churches, written by the apostle Paul. Revelations describes the Apocalypse.


The Bible can have four types of meaning. It can be literally true {literal meaning}. It can use allegory to teach {allegorical meaning}. It can have moral truth {tropological meaning}. It can tell about life after death {anagogical meaning}.


Staffs {crosier}| with crook or cross precede abbots, bishops, or archbishops.

grace of God

God gives everything {God's grace} {grace of God}. People's works alone cannot save them.

Petrine supremacy

In Catholicism, the bishop of Rome is the main bishop, because Jesus designated St. Peter, who became bishop of Rome, church leader {Petrine supremacy}.

pietism religion

People can have personal morality and contemplation {pietism}|.


God, Jesus, and Holy Spirit {Trinity}.


original sin

The first humans disobeyed God and, by inheritance, all people carry their sin {original sin}|. Perhaps, people also acquired ability to sin and guilt about sinning.


Catholic Church can give pardons {indulgence}| for sin.


cross of Christianity

Christianity has a symbol {cross, Christianity}.

double-beam cross

Greek Orthodox Church uses a cross {double-beam cross} with two bars.

Lutheran cross

Lutheran Church uses a cross {Lutheran cross} with circle.

triple-beam cross

Russian Orthodox Church uses a cross {triple-beam cross} with three bars.

Greek cross

Crosses {Greek cross} can have four equal arms.



God, divines, or saints can change nature's laws {miracle}. Miracles imply suspending or breaking physical law. If universe allows physical law to break or temporarily not apply, much greater physical effects have to happen, over larger regions and times. Miracles imply that non-physical actions can happen. If non-physical actions happen, they have to have physical means to move physical things. Physical means are apparent for observed physical movements.

Immaculate Conception

God impregnated Jesus's mother {Immaculate Conception}, according to the Bible.


Mary received God's message {Annunciation} that she was to have virgin birth of Jesus, according to the Bible.

Magnificat song

According to Gospel of Luke, Mary sang a song {Magnificat} of praise after learning from an angel that she was to bear Jesus.


Perhaps, Jesus is god in human body {Incarnation}. Controversy concerns whether Jesus was only god, only human, or both.

virgin birth

According to the Bible, Mary was virgin {virgin birth}. Some Romans had claimed Caesar Augustus was god who had virgin birth, so early Christians used same tactic.

Christmas day

No record besides the Bible exists of Jesus' birthday or conception, but his conception was supposedly on March 25 and his birthday {Christmas} nine months later. December 25 is also consistent with Jesus being six months younger than John the Baptist.

Three Wise Men

According to the Bible, "wise men from the east" {Three Wise Men} {Magi, Bible} brought gold, frankincense, and myrrh to Jesus twelve days after his birth. Caspar, king of Chaldea, brought gold. Melchior, king of Nubia, brought frankincense. Balthazar, king of Babylon, brought myrrh. Gospel of Matthew does not mention how many wise men. Perhaps, they were Zoroastrians. Probably, wise men were actually fools or people performing fol-de-rol.

Epiphany Christianity

January 6 {Epiphany} is when wise men visited Jesus.

resurrection of body

Return to spiritual and bodily life {resurrection, Christianity}| can follow death. According to the Bible, Jesus rose from the dead {Resurrection} and left his tomb after three days, on Easter Sunday. At the resurrection, God will judge people and assign them to heaven or hell. Heaven is where all is pleasant and one sees the face of God. Hell is pain and loss of God.

Ascension of Jesus

After revisiting the disciples, forty days after Resurrection, Jesus ascended into heaven {Ascension, Jesus}, according to the Bible.


Rites {eucharist}| can simulate the Last Supper.


Churches can elect bishops and abbots {investiture}|.


Patrimony of St. Peter was land {Donation} in Italy, Sicily, and Sardinia that Constantine I supposedly gave to Pope.

Apocalypse horsemen

The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse {Apocalypse} are Pestilence, Plague, Famine, and War.

Second Coming of Christ

Christians believe that Jesus died to redeem sin of all people who believe in him. He will return to judge everyone {Second Coming, Christ}, when kingdom of heaven will begin on Earth, or Earth will end.



The 11 original disciples, not including Judas, and later converted people {apostle, Jesus}| preached about Jesus.

archangel of Christianity

Gabriel is angel of revelations {archangel, Christianity}|. Rafael and Michael are other archangels.


Scribes and Pharisees {pharisee}| were Jewish priests and officials, whom Jesus scorned.


Bethlehem in Bible

Mary bore Jesus in a city {Bethlehem, Bible}, according to the Bible.

Garden of Gethsemane

Jesus rested in a garden {Garden of Gethsemane} {Gethsemane} in Jerusalem, according to the Bible.

Golgotha in Bible

Jesus was crucified on a hill {Golgotha, Bible}, according to the Bible.


A stable feeding trough {manger, religion}| was a cradle for baby Jesus, according to the Bible.

Mount of Olives in Bible

Jesus rested on a Jerusalem hill {Mount of Olives, Bible}, according to the Bible.

Nazareth in Bible

Jesus grew up in a town {Nazareth, Bible} in north Palestine, according to the Bible.


Saint Agnes

patron saint of maidenhood {Saint Agnes}.

Saint Andrew

patron saint of Scotland {Saint Andrew}.

Saint Ansgar

patron saint of Scandinavia {Apostle of Scandinavia} {Saint Ansgar}.

Saint Barbara

patron saint of defense {Saint Barbara}.

Saint Catherina

patron saint of Italy {Saint Catherina}.

Saint Cecilia

patron saint of music {Saint Cecilia}.

Saint Christopher

patron saint of travelers {Saint Christopher}.

Saint George

patron saint of England {Saint George}.

Saint James

patron saint of Spain {Saint James}.

Saint Jerome

patron saint of scholars {Saint Jerome}.

Saint Joan of Arc

Joan of Arc {Saint Joan of Arc} or Maid of Orleans was from France.

Saint Leopold

patron saint of Austria {Saint Leopold}.

Saint Nicolaus

patron saint of Russia {Saint Nicolaus}.

Saint Patrick

patron saint of Ireland {Saint Patrick}.

Saint Sebastian

patron saint of doctors and nurses {Saint Sebastian}.

Saint Sigismund

patron saint of Poland {Saint Sigismund}.

Saint Thomas

patron saint of Portugal {Saint Thomas}.

Saint Ursula

patron saint of female education {Saint Ursula}.

Saint Wenceslaus

patron saint of Bohemia {Saint Wenceslaus}.



Christian religious belief system {Gnosticism} supposedly provides privileged knowledge of spiritual world. Gnosis (deep knowledge) came from divine being, through medium of Christ, who brought redemption. People have spark of the divine in them and long to leave material world and return to spiritual world. They need knowledge to do this.


God is unknowable divine being, solely of spiritual world. Spiritual world and beings sprang from thoughts of God. Lesser divinities {demiurge, Gnosticism} of spiritual world created material world and physical motion. However, creation and action are antagonistic to the truly spiritual.


Gnosticism included other movements, such as theosophy.

Monophysite controversy

Some early Christians believed that Jesus was person with human nature and did not unite divine and human {Monophysite controversy}.

Nestorian controversy

Jesus was two separate persons, one divine and one human {Nestorian controversy}. There was no Virgin Birth.


There is no original sin, and people can be perfect without God's grace {Pelagianism}.


chi rho

Christ {chi rho} (CHR).


Jesus, Savior of Man {IHS}.


Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews {INRI}.

trefoil symbol

Symbols {trefoil symbol} can be for Christian Trinity.



watchfulness, power, wisdom, and understanding symbol {Abraxas}.


Mystic star {Heptagram} is for magic.


creation symbol {Octagram}.

seven-headed serpent

fate symbol {seven-headed serpent}.

sigil of the sun

stylized sun {sigil of the sun}.

sigil of the world

stylized Earth {sigil of the world}.

water-fire principle

stylized water and fire symbol {water-fire principle}.


Confucianism religion

Religions {Confucianism} can emphasize moral practical life and society.


Confucianism added religious elements after Confucius died. Shang-ti is ruler of heaven. Confucius became a god.


Learning's four parts are virtue, eloquence and logic, government, and morals and ethics.


Objects and physical, behavioral, emotional, and social phenomena have numerical principles, allowing study of medicine, psychology, and politics by same principles. The two main ideas are heart or mind {xin} and things or objects {wu}, also expressed as "principle" versus "practical" and "idealism" versus "empiricism". Paired relationships are male/female, order/disorder, or constructive/destructive {yin, Confucianism} {yang, Confucianism}. Things divisible by fives correlate {five phases}. Calendar depended on ten heavenly stems and twelve earthly branches.


Confucianism requires scholarship {Ju School} and studies the Six Classics or Lui Yi.


Matter forms by li and carries desires {ch'i}.


People develop following their natures {hsing}, if nothing interferes. Hsing can be control of ch'i.


Proper conduct {jen}, which varies with relations to other people or things, maintains sympathy or kindness. Filial honor and temperance are good.


People should practice proper behavior {li, proper behavior}, depending on social status. People should treat subordinates as if they were superiors. Li is structures and patterns in nature according to Chu Hsi. Li is structures and patterns in mind, according to Wang Yang-ming. Li pairs with matter to make objects. Li acts to organize matter, desires, and thoughts correctly, according to Tai Chen.

tao in Confucianism

Best ways {tao, Confucianism} to live exist.

te in Confucianism

People can live in the best way {te}.

yi in Confucianism

People should do their duty and behave correctly using correct judgment {yi}, even if they do not know rules. Yi leads to courage and calm.


Hinduism religion

Aryans who entered India [-1500] had polytheistic religion {Hinduism}.


Truth cannot use words, images, or things, only personal experience. Finding true reality requires human endeavor.


Universe is product of divine will and desire of the One to become many. The world body contains upper, middle, and lower regions. Upper region {garuda} has multitude of heavens, with celestial musicians, female apsarases, and bird-like atmosphere gods. Heavens have rulers {Indra, ruler}. Souls earn merit and abide in heaven as gods during time between reincarnations. Middle region has man and beasts. Lower world contains Dravidian fertility gods who attend Shiva and Kubera, titans, ghosts, monsters, goblins, and water gods appearing as serpents.


Saraswati Puja honors Saraswati, goddess of learning and fine arts, on 5th day of new moon in January or February.

Holi is advent of spring, dedicated to Kama, god of love, on full moon in March. People spray colored powders and waters.

Sivaratri honors Shiva, on 14th day of new moon in March.

Janmastami is birthday of Krishna, 8th day of new moon in July or August.

In west India, Ganesh Chaturthi or Coconut Day is in honor of Ganesh, in August or September. In Bengal, Durga Puja is triumph of good over evil, in September or October. In north India, Dussera is Rama's victory over Ravana, in September or October.

Dewali or Festival of Lights is Rama's return from exile, after victory over Ravana, in October or November.


Hinduism has six treasures. First, mental quiet, then sense restraint, then end to sense qualities, then endurance, then concentration, and then perfect faith. People should master their minds and bodies, to eliminate all outside influences.


Hinduism identifies four areas of human life: artha, kama, dharma, and moksa. In Hinduism, life is ascetic, monastic, and meditative. There are periods of praying, yoga, daily rituals, and worship.

life: stages

In Hinduism, life has four stages: student, householder, retirement for meditation, and poor sage. The first two stages require the first three life-area skills, such as living in village and participating in civilization. After performing all duties, finishing raising family, and losing skill in craft, retirement to the forest is third life stage. In old age, people concentrate on self and need skills of the fourth life stage to prepare for death.

duty and reward

In Hinduism, people should do their duty, without need for reward. People should be indifferent.


In Hinduism, taking part in ritual acts, such as weddings or traditional crafts, gains solemnity and higher sense of life.

Act of Truth

One should live one's proper dharma perfectly {Act of Truth}. Perfect faith and wisdom have power to accomplish magic. People gain satisfaction from duty and participating in the Law.



Villages had practitioners {vaidya} of Herbal Medicine {ayurveda}.

guru in Hinduism

religious or meditation teacher {guru, Hinduism}.


egg symbol

health {egg symbol}.


Phallic shape {lingam} is symbol of Shiva.

lotus symbol

eternity {lotus symbol}.


Ritual syllable OM or AUM, meaning silence, expresses the four consciousness states in its four Sanskrit letters {OM} (AUM).

Panca Sayaka

The five arrows {Panca Sayaka} represent the five senses. Devi Lalithambika holds five arrows representing the five tanmatras or subtle elements.


Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva {trimurti}.


Hindu gods

Hinduism has gods {Hindu gods} {gods, Hinduism}.

Aditi is equivalent to Rhea.

Adityas are twelve minor sun gods who rule the months.

Agni is god of fire or sacrificial fire. Agni in Sanskrit, ignis in Latin, and ogon' in Russian all mean fire.

Ananga is Kama as bodyless, and so is about abstract love.

Asvins or Divine Physicians are Nasatya and Dasra, twin sons of Saranyu, goddess of Dawn, and Surya, god of Sun.

Atman is Self as Creator. Brahma is the Creator.

Brahmanaspati, Brhaspati, or Brihaspati is god of prayer and ritual devotion, and guru to Indra.

Devi is Mother Goddess.

Dyaus Pita is sky or Father Heaven and is like Zeus in Greek, Jupiter in Roman, and Tyr in German mythology.

Ganesa is Lord of Hosts, Shiva's son, guide of the soul, and breaker of the way.

Indra, god of thunderbolt and war, is king of the gods and slew Vrtra. Indra is like Zeus in Greek mythology.

Kala is the Absolute.

Kali is Sakti, the Black Goddess, the Great Power, or the Mother.

Kama is god of Love.

Krishna (black), Dark One, or Govinda is prophet of the Bhagavadgita and is the same as Vishnu.

Kundalini is the primal World Force in selves.

Manu is ancestor of man.

Maruts are storm-beings.

Matsyakanya, Satyavathi Devi, or Anantha Lakshmi is mermaid.

Mitra is god of friendship and alliances. Mitra is like Mithra in Persia.

Namuci is the cosmic magician: "He who does not let go".

Padma is Mother Goddess.

Parvathi or Sakti is consort of Shiva.

Prajapati is life-force itself, the need to create, the need not to be alone, and "Lord of Creatures".

Prithivi is the earth.

Pushan or Puchan is god of meeting.

Rati is mate of Kama and is goddess of sensual delight.

Rbhus are craftsmen.

Rudra is god of storm and wind, and sometimes death as part of Shiva.

Sakti is goddess of time, eternal power, and consort of the gods.

Savitar is sun as life-giver.

Shiva or Siva is god of eternity or universe, the destroyer, the cosmic dancer, and master yogi.

Soma is sacred potion or sacred plant itself.

Surya is sun god. Surya is like Apollo in Greek mythology.

Ushas is the dawn. Ushas is like Eos in Greek and Aurora in Roman mythology.

Varuna is god of the dead and one of the Adityas. Varuna is like Uranus in Greek mythology.

Vac is the word.

Vasanta is Spring.

The sage Vasudeva is father of Krishna and Balarama and had Devaki and Rohini as consorts.

Vayu is the wind.

Vishnu is the preserver, supreme god in Upanishads.

Vishvadevas are all gods.

Bharata as god

India clans have an ancestor {Bharata}.

Brahma as god

Creator {Brahma} lives one hundred years of Brahma. Brahma created Kumara.


Gods have a king {Indra, king of gods}.


Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatana and Sanatkumara {Kumara} are four spiritual beings that must be also material.

Rama as god

Ramayana has a hero {Rama}.


King of underworld has a messenger {Yamdoot}.


Hindu ages

People are now in the fourth and worse World Age, Kali Yuga, of present time cycle {Hindu ages}.


Each of the 14 eons {Manvantara} has Manu: Svayambhuva Manu, Svaracisa Manu, Uttama Manu, Tamasa Manu, Raivata Manu, Caksusa Manu, Vaivasvata Manu or Manu Vaivasvate, Savarni Manu, Daksa Savarni Manu, Brahma Savarni Manu, Dharma Savarni Manu, Rudra Savarni Manu, Deva Savarni Manu, Indra Savarni Manu. Current eon is the seventh {Vaivasvata Manu}. One mahayuga has four ages {yuga}. One Manvantara has 71 mahayugas. After Manvantara is Sandhi Kala.


The four ages {Yuga} are Kali Yuga or Iron Age [began -3102], Dwapar Yuga, Treta Yuga, and Satya Yuga or Krita Yuga, the last age.


panlinguistic monist

The Word {verbum} is reality {panlinguistic monist}, as both language and world. Sanskrit grammarians developed this philosophy.

Six Systems

Shad Darshanas or Shad Darsanas {Six Systems} {Six Schools} are the six sides of orthodox Hinduism: Samkhya or Sankhya, Yoga, Mimamsa or Purva Mimamsa [250], Vedanta or Uttara Mimamsa, Vaisesika or Vaiseshika, and Nyaya.


Vedas {Vaidika} {Vedic philosophy} contain search for underlying unity of universe.


The physical world contains antagonistic forces, which nonetheless need and depend on each other. Good and evil derive meaning from their differences. Existence derives meaning from non-existence. Thus, all shapes and forms depend on, and relate to, each other.


Essence or One has diversified and become dynamic, balanced, and full of opposites. The One can become many and still be one.


Vedic philosophy identifies body parts and functions with universe parts and functions. Universe and human has same inner form. Universe and human are parts of unity. People natures and fates link to cosmos nature and fate.


Ritual of sacrifice is about link between universe and human.


Vedic philosophy searches for the basis of personality. People have motivation, have animation, sustain themselves, and have inner nature. Knowing true and real Essence can bring power, magic, courage, peace, happiness, eternal life, and/or strength. By going inward to inner consciousness, people can escape from fear, pain, and death in world.


Gods possess knowledge of true Essence and so have power. Gods possess powers of self-transformation or self-transmutation but only in certain ways and into certain forms. People can personally contact these powers through gods and thus gain powers themselves.

Agama Hindu Dharma

Hinduism {Agama Hindu Dharma} can be in Bali and among Tenggerese people of east Java.


Hinduism has an important book {Bhagavadgita}.


People should do all things as duties or rituals {detachment, Hinduism}, because everything is deterministic. People should not do things to reach goals or satisfy wants. People should not act as agents. People should do and think only of act itself, not of consequences or effects. People should keep on acting but should act selflessly. Austerity, alms, and offerings are duties and should not have feelings of sacrifice, pride, or reservations.


Self is the same as the One. Bodily changes, feeling, will, desire, rewards, or punishments should not affect Self.


All things are only temporary, formed by transformations of the One in playful dream-like foreordained games, dances, or illusions. Divine power produces all things by its transformations.


The One is Creator, Maintainer, and Destroyer of universe. The One is indifferent to humans and all desires and attachments.

karma yoga

Yoga of Selfless Action {karma yoga} concentrates on one's inner Self, because One and Self are same thing. Because all arises from the One, people should surrender to, and merge with, the One. People should do their duty and perform the work of the One in the world.


In Bhagavadgita, Krishna (Dark One), in human form, persuades prince to return to duty as soldier and leader.


Jayanta [880] wrote Nyayamanjari, about a system {Kusumanjali}. Gangesa [1200] wrote Tattvacintamani about Navya-Nyaya school in Navadvipa, Bengal. Annambhatta [1650] wrote Tarkasngraha. Visvanatha [1650] wrote Karikavali or Bhasa-pariccheda, with commentaries Dipika and Siddhanta-muktavali (Principles of Muktavali).


The Six Systems of Hinduism have an oldest system {Samkhya} {Sankhya}.


World and human nature are separate. The world of matter {praktri, Samkhya} is completely separate from the infinite number of light-like conscious eternal selves {purusa, Samkhya}.

duality: matter

Matter is one thing but manifests itself in three gunas: tamas is inertia or tiredness, rajas is activity or pain, and sattva is harmony, tension, or pleasure.

duality: self

Self that associates with matter binds to the samsara endless round of birth and death. To disassociate Self from all matter, one can follow stages through proper techniques. Yoga can stop mind's spontaneous activities. Mind has ability to transform itself into whatever it senses, feels, or remembers, and always does so. Yoga can end restless transformations, which fix on the unreal. Yoga stills all senses, emotions, and thoughts and instead substitutes concentration on innermost being. Ending restless transformations reveals inner self.

cause and effect

Cause and effect are one. Effects re-form causes.

human body

Body has five senses, brain, life span, strength, breathing, intuition, and ego or consciousness.

knowledge hindrances

Five hindrances block true knowledge. Avidya is ignorance, thinking that conscious mind is and gives truth. Asmita is the idea that ego or mind is true Self. Raja is attachment, sympathy, interest, affection, love, and desire. Dvesa is hate, dislike, and repulsion. Abhinivesa (toward life) is desire to live.


Mind activities include accurate perception through inference and testimony, inaccurate perception, fantasy, sleep, and memory.

organs of action

Humans have five organs of action: speaking, grasping, moving, evacuating, and reproducing. These and the five senses are gates or openings of body to outer world. Intelligence, ego, and judgment make up the "inner organ" that controls these gates.


Five prana spirits or life-breaths are exhaling, inhaling, digesting or equalizing, ascending, and pervading. They maintain the body. Pranas continue after death, carrying previous impressions and nature of being.


Self is pervasive in the body, unchanging, eternal, not compound, unmoving, uninvolved, free, uncaused, uncausing, and infinite. Self appears to be alive, as reflected in matter's activity, but it is not. The "inner organ" of one's matter controls the life-process. Person's mind can know the light of the Self, but mind does not associate with Self at all. People cannot realize Self, because mind always distracts. Stopping mind gives clear view of Self.


Yogis use asceticism, learning, prayer, and surrender of Self to the One to isolate self from world. People disengage selves from all matter and realize their isolation. All motion and action are part of matter and so end. Yogis reverse usual unfolding of matter, which starts with praktri, then makes subtle matter, and then makes actual matter, which has the most tamas. Self finally stands passive and individual, unconnected to rest of universe. People then abide in eternal unconsciousness.


Kapila or Bhagavatam wrote Sankhya Sutras and founded a school. Asuri was disciple of Kapila. Pancasika was disciple of Asuri and wrote sutras. Isvara-Krsna [400 to 500] wrote Sankhya-karikas or Sankhya-saptati. Gaudapada [700] wrote Sankhya-karika-bhasya. Vacaspati [840] wrote Sankhya-tattva-kaumudi about Sankhya-karika-bhasya. Aniruddha [1400 to 1500] wrote Sankhya-pravacana-sutravrtti about Sankhya-karika-bhasya. Vijnana-bhiksu [1650] wrote Sankhya-pravacana-bhasya. Sankhya-sara has comments about Kapila's Sankhya Sutras.


The Six Systems of Hinduism include a school {Mimamsa} about Veda liturgy and rituals. The sound of Sanskrit in hymns and repeated holy words, such as "Om", has meaning and is magic.


Jaimini [200] wrote Mimamsa-sutras, such as Purvamimamsa-sutra, and founded mimamsa. Sabara Svamin [400] wrote bhasya on Mimamsa-sutras. Prabhakara [650] wrote Brhati about Sabara bhasya. Kumarila Bhatta [700 to 800] wrote Sloka-varttika, Tantra-varttika, and Tuptika about Sabara bhasya. Salikanatha [600 to 700] wrote Prakarana-pancika and was Prabhakara's pupil. Parthasarathi [900] wrote Sastrapradipika (Scriptural Texts on Light). Madhva-Vidyaranya [1350 to 1380] wrote Nyaya-mala-vistara. Laugaksi Bhaskara [1600 to 1700] wrote Arthasangraha.


The Six Systems of Hinduism include a school {Nyaya} about logic and argument.


Knowledge has four sources: perception, inference, analogy, and credible testimony. Inference is the only way to true knowledge. Inference is of three kinds. One is from cause to effect. Another is from effect to cause. Third is from perception to abstract principle.


Three cause types are material or inhering cause, formal or shaping cause, and instrumental cause.


Syllogisms have five parts: proposition, cause, cause example, cause recapitulation, and proposition restatement {conclusion, Nyaya}. This syllogism type uses the principle of invariable association.


Nyaya depends on Nyaya-sutra by Gautama or Aksapada.


Gautama, Gotama, or Aksapada [-550] wrote Nyayasutras and founded Nyaya. Vatsyayana [400] wrote Nyaya-bhasya about Nyayasutras. Udyotakara [600 to 700] wrote Nyaya-varttika about Nyaya-bhasya. Vacaspati [841] wrote Tatparyatika about Nyayasutras, Nyaya-bhasya, and Nyaya-varttika. Udayana [984] wrote Tatparyatika-parisuddhi.


The Six Systems of Hinduism include a school {Vaisesika} about atomistic cosmology. All substances, immediate qualities, universals, absences, movements, associations, differences, and inherences are atoms. All knowable things have atoms. All world atoms are fleeting and changing. Soul is not in time or space and so is eternal.

cause and effect

Cause makes something new emerge from itself.


Vaisesika depends on Vaisesika-sutra of Kanada.


Kanada, Uluka, or Acarya [-600] wrote Vaisesika Sutras and founded Vaisesika or Aulukya. Prasastapada [400 to 500] wrote Padartha-dharma-Sangraha bhasya, which expands on Vaisesika-sutra. Sridhara [991] wrote Nyayakandali. Vyomasiva wrote Vyomovati commentaries on Laksanavali of Prasastapada. Udayana [984] wrote Kiranavali. Vallabhacarya [1000 to 1100] wrote Nyayalilavati mixing Vaisesika and Nyaya. Sivaditya [900 to 1000] wrote Saptapadarthi. Visvanatha [1650] wrote Bhasa-pariccheda and Siddhanta-muktavali (Principles of Muktavali).



The Six Systems of Hinduism include a school {Vedanta} that modifies Vaidika or Vedic philosophy and depends on Upanishads.


Vedanta has many schools, with different monism-dualism positions. Samkara is largest school and is intellectual Hinduism, with no myths, just meditation.

cause and effect

Cause is real, but effect is illusion. Change is illusion.

creation story

Brahman split into male and female and procreated.


The final stage of finding union with Brahman is state of pure rest, with end to mind transformations. People can know Brahman only by intuition. Enlightenment ends need for knowledge or reasoning, which are both illusions. Enlightened people have serenity, dignity, and majesty. They do not act in world. Any lingering karma carries on acts until they complete. They have become like Brahman and continue playing without participating or feeling affected. They are like sleepwalkers, indifferent to all things and actions. They are beyond time and silent.


In Vedanta myths, the god Vishnu dreams. First, Vishnu makes Brahman, creation-principle and all-one, from his world-womb at his navel. Lotus located at navel is dreamed world of Vishnu. Vishnu is the humane preserver.

Rama, Krishna, and Buddha are Vishnu incarnations. Rama married Sita.

Devaki is virgin mother of Vishnu.

Shiva is the destroyer, dissolver, and reproducer.

Gods are only symbols or visible signs of powers, not channels for them.


People cannot know Brahman by ordinary knowledge, only intuition.

self stages

People find Self and understand true reality by proceeding through stages, using several methods to remove layers that hide the Self. Before starting, people should have good morals: doing good works without thought of reward or punishment, practicing yoga for ability to concentrate intensely, and studying Vedas for preparation.

After getting ready to search for Self by good morals, first method is to study texts and teachings, to use method of refutations to disprove erroneous inferences and analogies. Erroneous inference is that world is dual or plural. Other erroneous inferences attribute qualities or attributes to things. This method teaches that fears and desires are also needless and unreal.

Second method is meditation on Brahman, reflecting on reading. People feel personally conscious of God and know God as omnipotent and omniscient.

Third method is concentration on one thing to end mind's restlessness and end thought. People lose ego and see the identity of all things, because God is in all and in self. This state is pure sattva, with all tamas and rajas eliminated from self.

Fourth method is state of no consciousness, in which subject and object become one, so consciousness merges with Self. People, realizing that even sattva is delusion, achieve state of anonymity, complete loss of Self, and pure being.


People can accept pain and suffering by knowing that they are temporary and illusory.


Because Brahman is in everything, all things balance and have harmony. Brahman includes all pairs of opposites. Evolutionary or dialectic processes make pairs of opposites. As opposites interact, world emanates from Brahman.


Badarayana or Bhasyakara [-500 to -200] wrote the Brahmasutras of Vedanta. Sankara or Iamkara [788 to 820] founded Advaita School. Atreya, Asmarathya, Audulomi, Karsnajani, Kasakrtsna, Badari were early Advaita sages. Bhaskara [996 to 1061] founded Bhedabheda School. Yadava-prakasha or Bhedabheda taught Ramanuja [1000]. Ramanuja [1017 to 1127] founded Visist-advaita School. Madhva [1238 to 1317] founded an Advaita school. Nimbarka [1000 to 1100] founded an Advaita school. Srikantha [1270] founded Saiva-visist-advaita School. Sripati [1400] founded Bheda-bhedatmaka-visist-advaita School. Vallabha [1479 to 1544] founded Suddh-advaita School. Suka [1550] founded Bhedavada School. Vijnana-bhiksu [1650] founded Atma-brahm-aikya-bhedavada School. Baladeva [1725] founded Acintya-bhedabheda School.


The One can manifest as material things, known objectively {adhidaivam}.


The One can manifest as individual self, known subjectively {adhyatman}.

ananda bliss

In Vedanta, the 'causal' body can be in silent, dreamless, unchanging, and painless state of bliss {bliss} {ananda}. The blissful state feels conscious.

atman in Vedanta

In Vedanta, Self {atman, Vedanta} is people's inner principle.


Self makes illusory sheaths or veils of consciousness from body, life, and mental processes. These consciousnesses are not the Self, and the Self cannot be object of consciousness.

Actual human body has waking consciousness. Waking state has terror, illusion, pain, and change.

The 'subtle' body has dreaming consciousness and includes the life-force or life-breath {prana, Vedanta}, corresponding to air or breath. It also includes sense qualities or perception. It also includes reason or understanding. Dreaming state has terror, illusion, pain, and change.

The 'causal' body can be in a state of bliss {ananda, Vedanta} or ignorance {avidya, atman}. Both are silent, dreamless, unchanging, and painless. Ignorant state is like death and unconsciousness. Blissful state feels conscious.


Self must remove these veils to reveal itself and go beyond consciousness. Self feels merged with Brahman.


Universal Self {atman-brahman} is inactive, rather than participating in and animating world. It encourages asceticism and monasticism, replacing the life affirming, joyful feeling in Hindu religion. It is the only reality. The rest is pure illusion.

avidya in Vedanta

In Vedanta, the 'causal' body can be in a state of silent, dreamless, unchanging, and painless non-consciousness {avidya, Vedanta}.

Ignorant state is like death and unconsciousness. Ignorance is physical-world instances, or universal pervading influence in physical world. In second sense, avidya is Brahman in personal role as Shiva-Vishnu, making life, evolving, maintaining, creating, destroying universe, and pervading all things. Brahman is like the Self, which makes its veils. As soon as people realize either Brahman or ignorance, they lose the realization, as Self merges with Brahman. Ordinary knowledge cannot know ignorance.


Impersonal spirit, essence, power, or energy is in everything and is unified Self {Brahman}. It is form and is formless. It has no properties {neti neti, Vedanta}. It is Holy Power, true reality, the One, or Essence. It is infinite, is all things, is identical in all things, is immanent in all things, and animates all things. It is creation principle. Primal force makes all temporal objects, events, and phenomena. Vishnu created it in dream. It retains consciousness of itself. It is omniscient and omnipotent. It is the Universal or highest God. All things are Brahman manifestations. Brahman has different degrees or spheres of power. It is rhythmic, cyclic gestures, game, play, dance, or illusion and is of no importance.

mind and world

Physical-world manifestations, including mind and thoughts, and spiritual world, of gods in their realms, will always continue, just as the One itself will continue. People ordinarily perceive the illusions as many separate things, not as the whole. Brahman can transform into any manifestation, and human minds continually transform. All manifestations and transformations are illusions, not true reality.


Underlying both world and mind is higher Brahman or Self, unmoving, unchanging, and serene. The true Brahman remains separate, aloof, impersonal, and inactive. Brahman perceives the illusion as whole, with clarity and serenity {sattva, Vedanta}, unmoved by tamas or rajas. Brahman is cause of the world. Knowledge of Brahman leads to final emancipation. Sages differ about nature of Brahman, relation between individual and Brahman, nature of release, and method to attain liberation.

karma in Vedanta

Previous actions have residues {karma, Vedanta}. Sages can become free from rebirth cycle, but karma causes all others to have endless reincarnation.

samadhi in Vedanta

People can have consciousness {samadhi, Vedanta} of duality of Self and mind.

In first samadhi, mind sees Brahman, has cosmic consciousness, and feels the power of the One in oneself, but it comes from outside.

In second samadhi, one feels no duality, only complete silence.

Falling into an unconscious state as one begins to lose vision of Brahman can block second state. Distraction by other sense impressions can block second state. Desires, needs, likes, dislikes, or memories from unconscious mind can block second state. Pure enjoyment of first state can block second state, showing that mind still does not have enough discipline.


Books {Upanishads} concentrate on Self and interior world.


Souls transmigrate from one body to another, seeking union with Brahman {Vishnuism}. Brahman dies to give birth to the world, the one becomes many, and then all things die to return to Brahman, the many become one.

yama in Hinduism

People should live ascetic life {yama, Hinduism}. General rules for ascetic life include non-violence {ahimsa}; word, thought, and deed truth and identity {satya, Vedanta}; no stealing {asteya}; celibacy; and possession rejection. Special practices {niyama} can achieve ascetic life: cleanliness, contentment, equanimity, austerity, indifference to desire, study, meditation, and devotion to personal god. Correct yoga body postures {asana} help, as does yoga breathing control {pranayama, Vedanta}.



The Six Systems of Hinduism include a school {yoga} that evolved from Samkhya.


Yoga has a meditation method, in eight steps, to bring mind to its essence by removing objective things. Samkhya yoga practice has four levels. The most ancient, simple, and lowest is observance of practices, rituals, and duties. The next level is to be insightful practitioner and have ability to truly concentrate. The next level is to be successful practitioner and to have truly suppressed mind. People reach this level by shedding tamas and rajas, leaving only sattva. Tamas and rajas, as unconscious and ego force, cause all hindrances to true knowledge, as dynamic opposes inert. Last level is to search for Self. This stage happens when one realizes that sattva only reflects Self and true Self is beyond it.


Patanjali [-200 to 300] wrote Yoga-sutras and founded Yoga. Sanatkumara and Jaigisavya wrote Yogashastra. Vyasa [400] wrote bhasya on Yogasutras. Tattvavaisaradi [850] wrote Vacaspati Misra, on Vyasabhasya. Yogavarttika [1650] wrote Vijnana-bhiksu, on Vyasabhasya. Bhasvati [1800 to 1900] wrote Hariharananda Aranya, on Vyasabhasya. Sankara wrote Yogabhasyavivarna, on Vyasabhasya. Rajamarttandavrtti [1000 to 1100] wrote Bhojadeva, on Yoga-sutras. Yogasutrapradipika has Bhavaganesa, on Yoga-sutras. Yoga-sutra-vrtti has Nagoji-bhatta, on Yoga-sutras. Yoga-mani-prabha has Ramananda Yati, on Yoga-sutras. Yoga-siddhanta-chandrika (Yoga Principles) has Narayana Tirtha, on Yoga-sutras. Yoga-sudhakara [1700 to 1800] has Sadasiva Brahmendra, on Yoga-sutras.


Stages correspond to body centers {chakra}, lying along spine.

Kundalini yoga

Yoga {Kundalini yoga} can be a method to end sense qualities and suffering by purgation, cleanliness, concentration, and exercises and achieve union with universe, perfect self-knowledge, and isolation from all other souls. Kundalini yoga takes practitioners through stages {Lotus Ladder} from everyday dullness, to sex, to power and achievement, to compassion, to conquest of self and sex, to vision of God, to pure ecstasy.

siddhi in Hinduism

Yogis can claim prophecy, levitation, astral projection, and other mental skills {siddhi, Yoga}.


Islam religion

Religions {Islam, religion} can say there is only one god, who is merciful but unknowable, and Mohammad is his final prophet. In Islam, Adam ate wheat, rather than the Bible's apple, for his original sin. All adults should pray five times a day, facing Mecca.


Spiritual power works magic {baraka}.

crescent and star

Islam has a symbol {crescent and star}.


prohibited {haram}|.


crescent moon {hilal}.


Mohammad had a vision {Mi'raj} of going to heaven on al-Borak, a winged animal.



Doctrine {ijma} can be that belief of most Moslems is infallibly true.

Law of Talion

People can take revenge equal to loss, such as taking eye for loss of eye {Talion Law} {Law of Talion}.


Koran Islam

Mohammad said the angel Jibril (Gabriel) revealed text {Koran} {Qurun} to him.


Koran and Hadith have Islamic laws {Sharia} {shari'a}.


five pillars of Islam

All able adults should perform five duties {five pillars of Islam}. Accept and say "There is one God and Mohammad is his prophet." Pray five times a day. Give alms at rate 2.5% {zekat}. Fast in the holy month, Ramadan. Make the pilgrimage, called the Hajj, to Mecca at least once.


All able adults must go to Mecca at least once {pilgrimage}.


People can work for Islam and God, deny temptations and never perform wrongs, or defend Islamic society after attack {jihad}|.


People have practices or ways of living {sunna}.


All adults should give one-quarter {alms} of income for the poor and for Islam.


Practice {din} of religion by prayers is way of Islam.



A heretical Islam branch {Babism} depends on Islam but has a different idea of the Mahdi.


A heretical Islam branch {Bahaism} depends on Islam but has a different idea of the Mahdi. Service to others is a form of prayer. Justice is paramount. Bahaism has no clergy. God's manifestations were Krishna, Abraham, Moses, Buddha, Zoroaster, Christ, and Mohammad.


abba in Arabic

Arab robe {abba}.


head covering {hijab}.


headdress {kaffiyah}.


face veil {niqab}.


keeping women veiled {purdah}.


Islam holidays

Friday is holy day {Islam, holidays}.

Akheri-Chahar-Sumba remembers when Mohammad recovered slightly and bathed before he died, on Wednesday of Safar.

Id-e-Milad is Mohammad's Birthday.

Eide-Fetr, Id-ul-Fitr, Id-ul-Fitar, or Eid-al-Fitr is end of the month of Ramazan or Ramadan.

Eide-Mabus or Eide-Ghadir is when Gabriel revealed the Koran, on 2nd day of full moon after Ramazan or Ramadan.

Death of Mohammad.

First Day of Muharram.

Bakr-id, Id-uz-Zuha, or Eid-al-Adha is day of Abraham's sacrifice, on 10th day of last month of lunar year.



Eide-Ghorban is day when Mohammad designated Ali as successor.

Death of Ali is in Ramazan.

Muharram or Tenth of Muharram or Ashura is martyrdom of Hassan and Hossein by Shimi, general of Yazid at Karbala, near Babylon, on 10th day of Muharram.

eid al-Adha

hajj last day {eid al-Adha}.

eid al-Fitr

Ramadan last day {eid al-Fitr}.


pilgrimage to Mecca {hajj}|.


In the holy lunar month {Ramadan} {Ramazan}, in honor of Mohammad receiving the Koran, all adults should not eat, drink, smoke, or have sexual relations during daylight hours.

6-Religion-Religions-Islam-Koran References

Alif Lam Mim

letters of unknown meaning {Alif Lam Mim} {Alif Lam Mim Suad} {Alif Lam Ra}.


evening or epoch {Asr}.


criterion of right and wrong {Furqan}.


book of the righteous {Iliyin}.


New Testament {evangel} {Injeel}.


Ka'bah is in Mecca {qiblah}.


Koran {Quran}.


People can mispronounce or misunderstand {Raina}.


book of the wicked {Sijjin}.


Torah or Pentateuch {Taurat} {Tavrat}.


watch over us {Unzurna}.


Psalms {Zabur}.

6-Religion-Religions-Islam-Local Gods


local god Baal {B'al}.


local goddess {Manat}.

Nasr god

help, or local god {Nasr}.


local god {Suwa}.


local goddess {Uzza}.


local god {Wadd}.


local god {Yaghus} {Yaghuth}.


local god {Yauq}.


Abraham in Islam

In Islam, God asked Abraham {Abraham, Islam} to sacrifice his son Ishmael, not Isaac as in the Bible. Nimrod warred on Abraham. Abraham was first prophet of Islam.

Ad tribe

tribe {Ad, tribe}.

Adam in Islam

first man {Adam, Islam}.

Ahmad in Islam

apostle of Jesus {Ahmad}.

Aga Khan

imam (leader) of Ismaili Nizari Muslims of Ismaili Shi'a branch {Aga Khan}.

archangel in Islam

Gabriel is angel {archangel, Islam} of revelations. Michael is patron of Israelites. Israfil will sound the trumpet on judgment day. Azrael is angel of death.


Job {Ayub} {Ayyub}.


father of Abraham {Azar}.


theocracy head {caliph}.


People {Companions} went with Mohammad to Medina in the Hegira [622].


David {Dawood}.

devil in Islam

Shaitan {devil, Islam}, the Opposer, is far from truth. Iblis, the Wicked One, is without hope.


bad spirits {Efreet}.


pharaoh {Firon}.


good and bad spirits {genii}|.


Persons {hafiz}| can memorize the Quran.


Egyptian in time of the pharaoh {Haman}.


Aaron {Haroun}.


Two angels {Harut} {Marut} were at Babel.


female fairies {houri}| {peri}.


prophet {Hud}.

Ibrahim Abraham

Abraham {Ibrahim} is the Hanif.

Idris Enoch

Enoch {Idris}.


Elias {Ilyas}.

imam in Islam

faith, man of faith, or mosque leader {imam, Islam}|.


father of Mary {Imran}.


Jeremiah {Irmiya}.


Jesus {Isa}.


Isaac {Ishaq}.


Isaiah {Ishaya}.


Abraham's son, progenitor of Arab people, and second prophet of Islam {Ishmael} {Ismail}.


Goliath {Jalut}.

Jesus in Islam

Fifth prophet {Jesus} of Islam showed new side of God.


archangel Gabriel {Jibreel}.


bad spirits {Jinn} {Deves}.

Joseph of Judea

A man {Joseph of Judea} married the beautiful Zulaikha in Egypt and has admiration in Islam.


caliph {khalif}.


Uncle {Lahab} of Mohammad opposed Islam.


sage {Luqman}.

Lut Lot

Lot {Lut}.


Zoroastrians {Magians}.


At world's end, a man {al-Mahdi} {mahdi} will lead the faithful. Jesus will be al-Mahdi when he returns.


king, maker, or owner {Malik}.


Mary {Marium} was mother of Jesus.


archangel Michael {Meekaeel}.

Moses in Islam

Fourth prophet {Moses, Islam} of Islam received commandments.


Men {muezzin}| shout call to Islamic prayer from minarets.

Musa Moses

Moses {Musa}.


People {Muslim} can humble themselves before, and submit to, God. World has one billion Muslims.


Nimrod {Namrud}.

Noah in Islam

Third prophet {Noah, Islam} of Islam survived the flood.


Noah {Nuh}.


Islam tells that there have been six prophets {prophet}: Abraham, Ishmael, Noah, Moses, Jesus, and Mohammad.


A Musa inhabitant {Qaroun} opposed Islam.


Kaaba keepers {Qureaish} {Quraish}.


Sheba {Saba}.


Mandaeans {Sabians} are in south Iraq and Iran.


companions {sahaba}.


prophet {Salih}.


Samarians {Samiri}.


witness or martyr {Shaheed}.


descended from Mohammad {sherif}| {sharif}.


prophet {Shu'aib}.

Solomon in Islam

King Solomon {Solomon, Islam} of Judea has admiration in Islam.


Soloman {Sulaiman}.


Saul {Talut}.


believers in Allah {umma}.


Ezra {Uzair}.


Guide or Ali {Vali}.


John the Baptist {Yahya}.


Jacob {Yaqoub}.


Jonah {Yunus}.


Joshua {Yusha} {al-Yasha}.


Joseph {Yusuf}.


A follower {Zaid} of Mohammad memorized the Quran.


Zacharias {Zakariya} was father of John the Baptist.


Ezekiel {Zul-Kifl} {Zulkifl}.



plain and mountain near Mecca and Mina {Arafat}.


land {Aram}.


A black stone {Hajaru'l-Aswad} is in the Kaaba in Mecca.

Hejaz in Koran

first region that Mohammad conquered, near Medina {Hejaz, Koran}.


valley midway between Mecca and Tayef {Hunain}.


mountain in south Arabia {Judi}.


The old sanctuary {Kaaba} {Caaba} in Mecca is pilgrimage goal of Islam adherents.


lake in paradise {Kausar}.

Lat goddess

north Arabia goddess {Lat}.


Ma'an {Madyan} is in greater Syria.


place in or near Mecca {Marwa}.

Mecca in Islam

Mohammad was born in a city {Mecca, Islam}, which is now Islam religious center.

Medina town

first town that Mohammad conquered {Medina}.


mosque tower {minaret}|.


house of worship or "place of kneeling" {masjid} {mosque}|.

Mount Arafat

Site {Mount Arafat} of a speech by Mohammad [630] is near Mecca.


valley {Naml}.


town {Rass}.


place in or near Mecca {Safa}.


fountain in paradise {Salsabil}.


land {Samood}.

Sinai mountain

mountain in east Egypt {Sinai}.


brightest star {Sirius}.


fountain in paradise {Tasnim}.


town {Tubba}.


valley {Tuwa}.


town or Medina {Yasrib}.


tree in hell {Zaqqum}.



in the name of God {Bismillah}.

Hadith sayings

sayings of Mohammad {Hadith}.


if God wills {Inshallah}.


"There is no God but God and Mohammad is his prophet." {Shahada}.



God {Allah}.


Satan {Iblis}.


Satan {Shaitan}.


Ibadi Islam

Sunni sects {Ibadi Islam} can be in Oman. Jabir ibn Zayd founded it.


Shi'a sect {Ismaili}.



A mystical philosophy {Sufism} {tasawwuf} of meditation and personal union with God comes from Islam. It is a gnostic system, emphasizing divine illumination, rather than behavior. The goal is to attain knowledge of higher reality. Practically, Sufis resist corruption, tyranny, cruelty, and wealth and help the poor and lower classes. Sufis do not turn away from life. They contend that one can learn from painful or hard situations. 40 days is time for mourning or other spiritual intervals.


Sufis {dervish}| need individual teaching to learn techniques. Sufi practices, such as spinning and dancing {whirling dervish}, are to induce autohypnosis.

dhikr Allah

People can have devotion to God {dhikr Allah}.


People can lose self in God or all-inclusive Self {fana}.


Feeling {haqiqa} of Islam goes beyond Islamic laws.

La ilaha illa 'Llah

God is One, who unifies all {La ilaha illa 'Llah}.


Wool {suf} is the cloth worn by mystics. Safa means purity. Suffa is mosque's veranda.


Sufism has seven stages to salvation: repentance, fear of God or abstinence, piety and detachment, poverty, patience or ecstasy, trust in God and surrender to God, and contentment {tariqa}.


Sufism has a style of meditation {zikr}.


mirror symbol in Sufism

Mirrors and polished silver {mirror symbol, Sufism} are symbols that both reflect and contain God.

moth symbol

Moths {moth, symbol Sufism} are souls always moving toward the light of God.

peacock symbol in Sufism

Closed-tail peacocks {peacock symbol, Sufism} are selves that are not yet one with God.

pearl symbol

Pearls {pearl symbol} are holders of Truth.

ruby symbol

Rubies {ruby symbol} are wealth and happiness.

water drop symbol

Water drops {water drop symbol} come from and return to sea, like humans and God.

well symbol

Wells {well symbol} are Paradise.



Religions {Jainism} can be similar to Yoga and Samkhya Schools of Hinduism but simpler and non-Vedic.


Jainism accepts that world exists. World will end with men at their lowest and world itself bestial.


Hindu gods are for help against disease, disaster, and so on. Idols provide objects for contemplation. Jainism is atheistic.


People should forget actions, humanity, virtue, and everything, and try to obtain release from the eternal round of birth and death {samsara, Jainism}. Release comes through suffering, compassion, and self-detachment. People should reject the life-force to reproduce and stay alive and instead try to escape from cycles of death and rebirth forever. People should transcend individuality and all details, be free of all action, and have complete isolation from world. To feel no pain or pleasure, no desire, and no will requires intense concentration and endurance.


Jaina householders should not destroy life. They should not tell lie. They should not use another's property without permission. They should limit possessions. They should vow daily to go only in certain directions and distances. They should not talk or act uselessly. They should not think of sinful things. They should limit diet and pleasures each day. They should be chaste.

They should worship at proper times. They should fast on proper days. They should exercise charity every day by giving money and doing other things.


Self permeates the human body. Body hides Self. Soul is not Self. True Self has no personality. Self is just like all other Selves. Self can perceive truth directly.

In one way, selves are permanent. In one way, selves are not permanent. In one way, selves are permanent and then not. In one way, selves are not describable. In one way, selves are permanent but not describable. In one way, selves are not permanent but not describable. In one way, selves are permanent and then not but not describable.


The five senses are brain, life span, bodily strength, speech, and breathing and make up human lives.


People belong to one of six soul types, which depend on karma. Soul can be white or yellow, red or gray, and blue or black. White is highest and purest and least affected by bad karma. Killing is the blackest act.

People accumulate karma depending on their actions, which have goodness, badness, and nature. Acting uses up karma but also brings in more karma. Karma accumulation gives soul color. Goal is to become lighter and lighter in each life. Soul color determines whether people rise or fall in strata of the Universal body. Finally, people hope to be free of all color, and then Self will be clear and omniscient.


World is full of suffering.


Universe is one human organism and is alive and eternal, as are people's inner Selves. All Selves are an infinite collection (Jiva).


Jainist saints {tirthankara} {Makers of the River Crossing} achieved enlightenment after many reincarnations, through graded ascetic exercises. Saint stories are similar to story of the Buddha and depend on yaksas and nagas.

The saints have gone to the ceiling of the universe and dwell there in perfect peace, omniscient, timeless, without action, and without contact with rest of universe. Jainist saints are mild, ascetic, intellectual, and strong.

In statues, they have standing attitude {dismissing the body}, or they sit yoga-like. Saints have symbols. Jainists should contemplate Jainist saints as inspiration.


Jaina monks wear white robes or go naked.


Space {ajiva} includes movement {dharma, Jainism}, rest or position {adharma}, time {kala, Jainism}, and atomic matter {pudgala}. Pudgala has six degrees of density.


Truth has many sides, so people should have tolerance and mutual respect {anekantavada}.


The five events {Five Kalyamas} {Kalyamas} are the following. Soul enters embryo. Birth happens. Renunciation takes place. All destructive karma is gone. Liberation happens.

karma in Jainism

A matter form {karma, Jainism} has eight kinds: to block knowledge or perception, to create feelings, to cause delusions, to determine life length, to make personality or individuality, to make one's family, and to produce obstacles. Karma reduces the powers of Self or adds delimiting things to Self. Karma can enter soul through 42 channels. Souls go through rebirths until liberated from karma.

Mount Sammada

A mountain {Mount Sammada} sacred to Jainism is a place of enlightenment.



The five Vows {vratas} are Ahimsa, Satya, Asteya, Aparigraha, and Brahmacharya.

ahimsa in Jainism

People can take a vow {ahimsa, Jainism} not to kill. All things are alive, and all life has unity, even vegetables.


People can take a vow {aparigraha} to limit possessions and be unattached.



Religions {Judaism} can be about loyalty to one tribal god, by following laws, rituals, and practices.


Judaism has only one God. In Judaism, Hebrews (wanderers) are God's chosen people. God commands that people love God and all other people. People should become like God in transcendence. No one can describe God in form or history. God does not state his purposes.


Perhaps, at current-age end, God will raise people from the dead to live on the new Earth. In the resurrection, men and women will revert or advance to their optimal age.


Adam and Eve sinned by accepting apple from Tree of Knowledge, causing them to lose Garden of Eden, to have to work, and to have pain at childbirth.


Ancient Hebrews thought of the human being as body animated by God, with no soul, and thought people were mortal. Later, bodies have separate souls, which have life after death.


Saturday is holy day of Judaism, beginning at sundown on Friday and ending at sundown on Saturday. Purim is in March, when Esther saved Jews. Passover is typically one week before Easter, in April. Yom Kippur or Day of Atonement is in the High Holy Days at end of September. Feast of Booths or Ingathering is at harvest time. Hanukkah is near Christmas.


Jews spread over Mediterranean {Diaspora}, after fall of Jerusalem to Roman Republic.

Star of David

A six-pointed star {Star of David} {Magen David} {Mogen David} symbolizes Judaism.


Places {synagogue}| are for reading and teaching law.

Urim vetumin

High priest wears rectangle {Urim vetumin} with 12 metal squares, for 12 tribes of Israel.



Letter permutations {gematria} have hidden meaning.


Jewish mysticism {Kabbalah} has cosmology based on Hebrew alphabet, using Platonist and Pythagorean ideas. Letters are numbers. Letter permutations have hidden meaning {gematria, Kabbalah}. Tetragrammaton is the four-letter name of Yahweh, YHVH. The ten Sefirot are parts of the one God, Ein Sof.


Isaac the Blind, Abraham Abulafia of Posquieres [1200 to 1300], Moses ben Nahman or Nahmanides [1194 to 1270], Moses Cordovero [1522 to 1570], Joseph Caro [1500 to 1570], Isaac Luria [1535 to 1572 or 1543 to 1620], Shabbetai Zevi or the False Messiah [1627 to 1676], Giovanni Pico della Mirandola [1463 to 1494], and Abraham Herrara are Kabbalists. Isaac Luria founded Chaverim or Friends.


Garden of Eden

Adam and Eve lived there {Garden of Eden} {Eden, garden}, and it contained Tree of Knowledge, according to the Old Testament.

Tree of Knowledge

Tree {Tree of Knowledge} was in Garden of Eden, according to the Old Testament.



chief priest and second in command to Moses during exodus from Egypt {Aaron}, according to the Old Testament.

Abraham in Judaism

first Hebrew {Abraham, Judaism}, according to the Old Testament.

Adam in Judaism

first man or ground in Hebrew {Adam, Judaism}, according to the Old Testament.


Cain {Cain} and Abel were sons of Adam and Eve, and Cain killed Abel, according to the Old Testament.


A man {Daniel} escaped the lion's den when Jews were in captivity in Babylon, according to the Old Testament.


A woman {Esther} saved Jews from persecution in Babylon.

Eve person

first woman {Eve}, according to the Old Testament.


Abraham's son {Isaac}, according to the Old Testament.

Jacob or Israel

Jacob {Jacob} or Israel, Isaac's son, had 12 sons, for 12 tribes of Israel, according to the Old Testament.

Joseph in Judaism

Jacob's son {Joseph} went to Egypt and had a coat of many colors, according to the Old Testament.

Joshua in Judaism

After forty years of wandering after exodus from Egypt, after Moses [-1200 to -1100], a man {Joshua} fought at Jericho and led Jews into Canaan (Palestine), the land of milk and honey, according to the Old Testament.


A man {Methuselah} lived 900 years, according to the Old Testament.

Moses in Judaism

Egyptian rulers nurtured a baby {Moses, Judaism}, after rescue from Nile River. He sent plagues on Egypt, led Jews out of Egypt, parted Red Sea, and received Ten Commandments, according to the Old Testament.

Noah in Judaism

A man {Noah, Judaism} built the ark to survive the flood and had three sons, for the three races, according to the Old Testament.

Ruth in Bible

Boaz loved a woman {Ruth}, according to the Old Testament.

Samuel prophet

early leader and prophet {Samuel}, according to the Old Testament.

Solomon in Judaism

The king after David {Solomon, Judaism} was wise and wrote Song of Solomon. He chose true mother of disputed baby by threatening to divide it in half, according to the Old Testament.



Religions {mythology} can be about human-like gods and animals.


Arthur in myth

Arthur {Arthur}, King Uther Pendragon's illegitimate son, became king by being the only one that drew sword from stone. He received his sword Excalibur from the Lady of the Lake. He established the noble and chivalrous Knights of the Round Table and took Guinevere for his queen.

His nephew or son, Sir Mordred, fatally wounded Arthur in his middle years, and three queens took Arthur to Isle of Avalon, from which he will someday return to save England.


Irish, Welsh, Cornish, and North Breton legends joined to make Arthur, actual Anglo-Saxon invasion leader, into legend. Bretons carried story to Europe.


Arthur had castle {Camelot}.


Lady of the Lake received Arthur's sword {Excalibur}.

Round Table myth

A knight association {Round Table} dedicated themselves to chivalry.



Pelles of Astolat's daughter {Elaine} married Lancelot.


Lancelot and Elaine's son {Galahad} was a pure knight.


Arthur's nephew and knight {Gawain} of the Round Table followed the Green Knight and married the ugly lady, who then turned back into princess.


A queen {Guinevere} is King Arthur's wife.

Kay myth

Arthur's good-humored foster brother {Kay}.

Lancelot myth

Lancelot of the Lake or Launcelot du Lac {Lancelot}, strongest and most-gallant knight, arrived from France as friend to Arthur. Elaine of Astolat was in love with Lancelot, who ignored her. Guinevere and Lancelot became close but not actual lovers, but their affair threw her honor into question. Lancelot married Elaine to end his association with Queen.


Arthur's magician and counselor {Merlin}.


Arthur's nephew or son {Mordred} fatally wounded King Arthur.

Morgan Le Fay

Arthur's sister and enchantress {Morgan Le Fay}.


A knight {Parsifal} {Percival} set out to find the Holy Grail, the cup from which Jesus drank at the Last Supper. Only a pure knight can find it, and it will bring virtue back to world. Either Parsifal or Galahad found it after many adventures.

Tristan myth

A knight {Tristan} went to Ireland to bring back Isolde to be bride of King Mark of Cornwall. Tristan and Isolde accidentally drank a love draught, meant for King and bride, and fell passionately in love. Tristan went away but had to return, leading to both their deaths.

Twelve Paladins

Heroes {Twelve Paladins} {Peers} of Charlemagne included Roland, Charlemagne's nephew.


Egyptian mythology

Egypt had mythology {Egyptian mythology}. Ancient Egyptians thought that the god that created the universe created them directly, from nothing. Nature depended on gods' intentions. Gods spoke, were intelligent, had human passions, and were moral. At death, a great mechanical balance weighed heart against feather of truth to judge people.


Supreme deity {Amun} {Amen} is god of life and reproduction.


God {Anubis} conducts the dead to judgment.


Archfiend {Apep} {Apepi} tried to stop Sun from rising.


sacred bull {Apis}.


god of silence {Horus}.


Earth goddess {Isis} {Hathor} is sister and wife of Osiris and mother of Horus.

Nut myth

Heaven is arched body of sky goddess {Nut}, and stars are her jewels.


The god {Osiris} of Sun, Nile, warmth, life, and fruitfulness is regularly reborn as the calf Apis. His symbol is ram or cow.

Ra god

sun god {Ra}.


ruler of Tartarus and god of medicine {Serapis}.

Set god

The prince of evil {Set} {Typhon} killed Osiris.


God {Thoth} of wisdom, learning, language, and number has ibis head or baboon head.


Chaos in mythology

At beginning was dark and formless universe {Chaos, mythology}. Then Love appeared.


Mother Earth {Gaea} {Gaia} is mother of Titans and Giants. She was Terra {Terra, mythology} in Roman mythology.

Uranus god

Heaven or sky god {Uranus, Greek and Roman god} {Ouranos} was ruler of universe before Titans. He was father of Titans, Giants, and Cyclops. He was Caelus in Roman mythology.


Monsters {Cyclops}| had one eye. Uranus and Gaia had Brontes, Sterops, and Arges.


Giant in mythology

Uranus and Gaia had Cottus, Briareus, and Gyges. After Cronus castrated Uranus, Gaia received Uranus' genitalia residue and bore Giants {Giant, mythology} {Gigantes}: Agrios, Alcyoneus (leader), Aristaios, Clytius, Damysos, Enceladus, Ephialtes, Eurytus, Gration, Hippolytus, Leon, Mimas, Otus, Pallas, Peloreus, Polybotus, Porphyrion, Theodamus, and Thoon.


Giant {Antaeus}, who was invincible while touching ground, lost to Hercules, who lifted him up.


Titan in mythology

From the sky god Uranus and the earth goddess Gaia (Gaea) (Terra) came Titans {Titan, mythology}. The six females were Tethys (ocean), Theia (light), Phoebe (moon), Mnemosyne (memory), Themis (justice or law), and Rhea (earth). The six males were Oceanus (oldest, river, Tethys), Hyperion (sun, Theia), Coeus or Koios (intelligence or philosophy, Phoebe), Crius or Krios (ram, Eurbia), Iapetus or Iapetos (mankind, mortality, mountains, Clymene), and Cronus (youngest, agriculture, Rhea) in Greek mythology (Saturn in Roman mythology). Saturn ruled in the Golden Age. Hyperion had a son, Helios (sun), and two daughters, Eos (dawn) and Selene (moon). Coeus had daughters: Leto and Asteria. Iapetus had sons: Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Menoetius. Oceanus had a daughter: Metis (intelligence). Crius had sons: Astraeus, Pallas, and Perses. Cronus and Rhea made the Gods. Their three daughters were Hestia, Demeter, and Hera. The three sons were Hades, Poseidon, and Zeus.

Atlas in mythology

Titan {Atlas, mythology} bore world on shoulders.


Greek Titan {Cronus} ruled Golden Age, until his son Zeus overthrew him. Kronos was father of the Gods. He is Saturn in Roman mythology.


The female creation-principle {Metis} in early Greek myth became bisexual later as Metis in Greek mythology or Phanes in Roman mythology. Later it became only male as Phanes.


Titan {Prometheus} created men and gave them fire. Zeus bound him to a rock. Hercules saved him.


Greek Titan {Rhea} was queen during the Golden Age and was mother of the Gods, Ops or Opis in Roman mythology, and Cybele in Phrygia.

Saturn giant

Roman Titan {Saturn, giant} ruled the Golden Age, until Jupiter overthrew him. He was father of the Gods. He is Cronus in Greek mythology.


Greek and Roman gods

From Chaos and Love came the original gods {Greek and Roman gods} {gods, Greek and Roman}. Male Heaven or Sky was Uranus or Ouranos. Female Earth was Gaea or Gaia. Uranus and Gaea made the Titans, including Cronus and Rhea.

From Cronus and Rhea came the Gods: female Hestia (Greek) or Vesta (Roman), female Demeter (Greek) or Ceres (Roman), male Dis or Hades (Greek) or Pluto (Roman), male Poseidon (Greek) or Neptune (Roman), male Zeus (Greek) or Jupiter (Roman), and female Hera (Greek) or Juno (Roman).

Hera and Zeus produced male Hephaestus (Greek) or Vulcan (Roman), male Ares (Greek) or Mars (Roman), female Aphrodite (Greek) or Venus (Roman), male Hermes (Greek) or Mercury (Roman), female Artemis (Greek) or Diana (Roman), female Athena (Greek) or Minerva (Roman), and male Apollo or Apollon.

Twelve Immortals

Twelve gods {Twelve Immortals} dwelt on Mount Olympus: female Demeter (Greek) or Ceres (Roman), male Poseidon (Greek) or Neptune (Roman), male Zeus (Greek) or Jupiter (Roman), female Hera (Greek) or Juno (Roman), male Hephaestus (Greek) or Vulcan (Roman), male Ares (Greek) or Mars (Roman), female Aphrodite (Greek) or Venus (Roman), male Hermes (Greek) or Mercury (Roman), female Artemis (Greek) or Diana (Roman), female Athena (Greek) or Minerva (Roman), male Apollo or Apollon, first female Hestia (Greek) or Vesta (Roman) and then male Dionysius (Greek) or Bacchus (Roman).


king of the winds {Aeolus}.


Roman god of medicine {Aesculapius}.

Apollo god

Phoebus Apollo {Apollo} is Greek and Roman god of light, prophecy, truth, healing, archery, and music. His cult was at Delphi and stressed reason, harmony, and justice.


Greek god of War {Ares}. He was Mars in Roman mythology.


Roman god of Vine, Inspiration, and Madness {Bacchus} and son of Jupiter and Semele. He was Dionysius in Greek mythology.


Roman god of Love {Cupid} is a baby with bow and arrow. He was Eros in Greek mythology.

Dionysius god

Greek god of Vine, Inspiration, and Madness {Dionysius} and son of Zeus and Semele. Cult of Dionysius was about nature, ecstasy, and passion. Women Maenads participated in winter rituals. He was Bacchus in Roman mythology.

Eros myth

Greek god of Love {Eros}. He was Cupid in Roman mythology.


king of underworld or underworld itself {Hades}. He was Pluto in Roman mythology.

Hermes god

Greek messenger god {Hermes}, god of commerce and markets and guide of the dead, is thieving, shrewd, and cunning. He was Mercury in Roman mythology.


God of good beginnings {Janus} has two faces.

Jupiter god

Supreme Roman god {Jove} {Jupiter, Roman god} is king of sky, rain, and storm clouds. He had many children. He was Zeus in Greek mythology.


Roman household gods {Lares} are ancestor spirits.

Mars god

Roman god of war {Mars, Roman god}. He was Ares in Greek mythology.

Mercury god

Roman messenger god {Mercury, Roman god}, god of commerce and markets and guide of the dead, is thieving, shrewd, and cunning. He was Hermes in Greek mythology.


god of sleep {Morpheus}.

Neptune god

Roman ruler {Neptune, Roman god} of sea loved horses and carried trident. He was Poseidon in Greek mythology.

Pan god

Merry, noisy god {Pan, god} with goat horns and feet, lived in wild places and played reed pipe.

Pluto god

king of underworld {Pluto, Greek god}. He was Hades in Greek mythology.

Poseidon god

Greek ruler {Poseidon} of sea gave horses to men and carried trident. He was Neptune in Roman mythology.


God {Proteus} foretold the future and changed his shape.

Sol myth

Roman sun god {Sol} and Greek sun god {Helios}.

Terminus myth

god of boundaries {Terminus}.

Triton myth

sea god {Triton}.


God {Vulcan} of fire is an armorer and smith and is ugly, lame, kindly, and peace-loving. He was Hephaestus in Greek mythology.

Zeus god

Supreme Greek god {Zeus} is king of sky, rain, and storm clouds. He had many children. He was Jupiter in Roman mythology.



Greek goddess {Aphrodite} of love and beauty was mother of Eros. She loved Adonis. She was Venus in Roman mythology.

Artemis goddess

Greek goddess of moon, hunt, wild animals, and darkness {Artemis}. She was Diana in Roman mythology.


Greek goddess {Astraea} of justice helped men in Golden Age.


Greek goddess of mischief {Ate}.


Pallas Athena {Athena} is Greek goddess of city, civilization, handicraft, agriculture, wisdom, and justice. She was goddess of Athens, with temples on Acropolis. She was Minerva in Roman mythology.

Aurora myth

Greek goddess of the dawn {Aurora}.


Roman goddess of corn and harvests {Ceres}. She was Demeter in Greek mythology.


goddess of history {Clio}.


Greek goddess of corn and harvests {Demeter}. She was Ceres in Roman mythology.


Roman goddess of Moon, hunt, wild things, and darkness {Diana}. She was Artemis in Greek mythology.


Zeus' wife {Hera} is Greek goddess of marriage. She was Juno in Roman mythology. Hera is courage.


Roman goddess of marriage {Juno} is Jupiter's wife. She was Hera in Greek mythology.


Roman goddess of city, civilization, handicraft, agriculture, and wisdom {Minerva}. She was Athena in Greek mythology.

Nemesis myth

goddess of righteous anger {Nemesis}.

Nike goddess

Greek goddess of victory {Nike}.

Psyche myth

Girl {Psyche, Roman goddess} loved by Cupid became goddess of the soul.

Venus god

Roman goddess {Venus, Roman goddess} of love and beauty and mother of Eros loved Adonis. She was Aphrodite in Greek mythology.


Roman virgin goddess {Vesta} of hearth, home, and family. She was Hestia in Greek mythology.


Greek and Roman heroes

Achilles, Aeneas, Agamemnon, Ajax, Hector, Hercules, Odysseus in Greece or Ulysses in Rome, Paris, Perseus, Priam, and Troilus fought at Troy {Greek and Roman heroes}. Castor and Pollux are the Gemini twins.


The greatest Greek warrior {Achilles} in Trojan War killed Hector. He had protection from harm because he had dipped in River Styx, except for his heels. He died by arrow in the heel from Paris.


Trojan {Aeneas} loved Dido of Carthage, descended into Hell to find his father, and then founded Rome.


Greek commander {Agamemnon} at Troy killed his daughter Iphigenia to get to Troy. His wife, Clytemnestra, killed him on his return from Troy.


second-greatest Greek champion {Ajax}.


Twins {Gemini}, protectors of sailors, are the heroes Castor, for horsemanship, and Pollux, for boxing. They are sons of Jupiter, as the Swan, and Leda.

Hector myth

Priam's son {Hector} was the best Trojan warrior. He died at the hands of Achilles.


Greatest Greek hero {Hercules} {Herakles} performed 12 labors in penance for killing his wife while he was mad.


Greek hero {Odysseus} of Odyssey, same as Roman Ulysses, was wise and clever.

Paris myth

Priam's son {Paris, myth} judged Aphrodite fairest, causing Hera and Athena to be angry. When Helen was promised to him, he stole her and caused Trojan War. He killed Achilles by shooting arrow in his heel.


king of Troy during Trojan War {Priam}.


Priam's son {Troilus} loved Cressida. Achilles killed him.

Ulysses in myth

Roman hero {Ulysses, myth} of Odyssey, wise and clever, was same as Greek Odysseus.


Greek and Roman monsters

Centaurs, Cerberus, Charybdis, Chimera, Cyclops, Fauns, Gordon, Griffin, Harpies, Hydra, Medusa, Minotaur, Pegasus, Satyrs, Scylla, Sirens, and Sphinx {Greek and Roman monsters}.

Chimera myth

Bellerophon, while riding Pegasus, killed a monster {Chimera}.


The king of the serpents {Cockatrice} {Basilisk} killed with one glance.


Roman goat-men {faun}| can live in wild places.


Monsters {Gorgon}, of which Medusa was one, with wings and snaky hair, caused men to turn to monsters if they looked on them.


half eagle and half lion {griffin}|.


Argonauts routed smelly, flying creatures {Harpies}.

Hydra myth

Nine-headed creature {Hydra} grew two new heads if anyone chopped off head. Hercules killed it.

Medusa myth

a Gorgon {Medusa}.


Theseus killed a half bull and half man {Minotaur} imprisoned in the labyrinth.

phoenix myth

Birds {phoenix, myth}| can rise out of own ashes.


giant Indian-Ocean bird {roc}|.

salamander monster

Small reptile {salamander, myth}| did not burn in fire.


Goat men {satyr}| lived in the wild.


Circe changed maiden into monster {Scylla}, which attacked Jason, Odysseus, and Aeneas.

Sphinx myth

Winged lion {Sphinx} with woman's breast and face asked famous riddle.

unicorn myth

Slim horses {unicorn, myth}| have one long horn.


two-legged winged dragon {wyvern}|.


Greek and Roman people

Adonis, Amazons, Andromeda, Antigone, Argonauts, Calypso, Cassandra, Charon, Circe, Daedalus, Daphne, Dido, Dryads, Electra, Europa, Eurydice, Helen of Troy, Hero, Icarus, Leander, Medea, Midas, Naiads, Narcissus, Pandora, Penelope, Phaedra, Plutus, Psyche, Pygmalion, Sisyphus, and Tantalus {Greek and Roman people}.

Delphi myth

Oracle {Delphi, myth} was for Apollo.


protectors of suppliants {Eumenides} {Fates}.


just pursuers and punishers of sinners {Fury} {Furies} {Enrinyes}: Alecto, Tisiphone, and Megara.


Bellerophon rode a winged horse {Pegasus}, to kill the Chimera.



Aphrodite loved a beautiful youth {Adonis}.


Adventurers {Argonauts} sailed to get Golden Fleece under Jason, in the ship Argo.


Boatman {Charon} ferries the dead across River Acheron.


Labyrinth architect {Daedalus} flew out of the labyrinth on manmade wings.


Greek son {Deucalion} of Prometheus and his wife Pyrrha were the only survivors of the flood. He cast behind him his mother's bones, stones of Earth. These became human beings. Hellen was their daughter, and she had sons: Ion, Aeolus, Dorus, and Achaeus. Thus, Hellenes began, with the four tribes Ionians, Aeolians, Dorians, and Achaeans.


Daedulus' son {Icarus} soared too close to Sun, as he flew on waxed feathers, and drowned.

Jason myth

Leader {Jason} of Argonauts married Medea.


He {Leander} loved Hero.


Bacchus granted a wish that everything he touched turned to gold to a king {Midas}.

Minos myth

King of Crete {Minos} was at Cnossus, his capital.

Narcissus myth

A youth {Narcissus} scorned maidens, and gods punished him by making him love himself, so he pined away and became a flower at death.

Oedipus myth

His father Laius, King of Thebes, ordered him {Oedipus} killed when he was a baby. A peasant found him, and he grew up to slay his father unknowingly, solve the riddle of the Sphinx, marry his mother, and become king of Thebes. Gods revealed his unknowing misdeeds to him after Thebes suffered famine and pestilence, and he tore out his eyes.


Agamemnon's son {Orestes} killed his mother and her lover, because they had killed his father. Furies pursued him until Athena pardoned him.


Gods killed mighty hunter {Orion} and placed him as star constellation.


Great musician and singer {Orpheus} sailed with Argonauts and saved them from the Sirens. He went to Hades to get back Eurydice but failed when he gazed back at her.


He {Perseus} killed Medusa and married Andromeda.


Roman allegorical figure {Plutus} represents wealth.


Sculptor {Pygmalion} created statue and fell in love with it.


Man {Sisyphus} forever rolls stone up hill in Hades, because he betrayed oath to Zeus.


Man {Tantalus} sits in pool in Hades but cannot drink or reach the fruits near him to eat.


Odysseus' son {Telemachus}.


Athens' king {Theseus} killed Minotaur, established democracy in Athens, and married Phaedra.



women warriors {Amazons} from Caucasus.


Perseus saved a daughter {Andromeda} of Cassiopeia from a sea serpent.


Oedipus' daughter {Antigone} buried her brother in defiance of Creon, and Creon put her to death.


Minos' daughter {Ariadne} gave a thread to Theseus, so that he could go in and out of the labyrinth.

Calypso myth

Nymph {Calypso} loved Odysseus.


Agamemnon received as gift prophet {Cassandra} from Troy. Her fate was that no one believed her.


Witch {Circe} turned men into beasts. She did not get Odysseus but then helped him get to Hell.


Maiden {Daphne} loved by Apollo changed into laurel tree.


Founder {Dido} of Carthage loved Aeneas.


tree nymph {dryad}|.


Agamemnon's daughter and Orestes' sister {Electra}.


Zeus, in the guise of bull, carried off a woman {Europa}.


Wife {Eurydice} of Orpheus, who had gone to Hades to recover her, had to return to Hades because she looked back.


The three Graces {Graces}, Splendor, Mirth, and Good Cheer, represent grace and beauty.


Paris, Priam's son, carried off the wife of Agamemnon {Helen}, causing Trojan War.

Hero woman

Leander swam the Hellespont to her {Hero} every night, until he perished.


Priestess {Medea} of Golden Fleece in Colchis helped Jason get it and married him.


The nine daughters {Muses} of Zeus and Mnemosyne are: Erato {goddess, lyrics}, Euterpe {goddess, music}, Thalia {goddess, comedy}, Melpomene {goddess, tragedy}, Terpsichore {goddess, dance and choral song}, Urania {goddess, astronomy}, Clio {goddess, historical and heroic poetry}, Polyhymnia {goddess, hymn}, and Calliope {goddess, epic}. Calliope's son was Orpheus.


water nymph {naiad}|.


After the Golden Age, gods created the first woman {Pandora} from man. She opened a forbidden box, letting out all bad things, but she also let out Hope. Alternatively, she opened treasure box letting all good things escape, except that Hope remained.


wife of Odysseus {Penelope}.


Pluto carried a daughter {Persephone} of Demeter to Underworld, but she can return to Earth's surface every spring and so is maiden of Spring.


Theseus' wife {Phaedra} loved her stepson Hippolytus and killed herself.


Pluto carried a daughter {Proserpine} of Ceres to underworld.

siren myth

Singers {siren}| lured sailors to their deaths on an island.


muse of dance {Terpsichore}.


Greek and Roman things

Aegis, Augean Stables, Caduceus, Delphi, Eleusinean mysteries, Elysian fields, Golden Age, Golden Fleece, Gordion Knot, Halcyon Days, Labyrinth, Lethe, Lotus, Meander, Olympus, Pandora's Box, Pillars of Hercules, Styx, Tartarus, and Trojan Horse {Greek and Roman things}.


People must cross river {Acheron} of woe to get to Hades.

ambrosia of gods

Food {ambrosia, gods}| of gods gives immortality.

Augean Stables

Labor of Hercules diverted river to wash stables {Augean Stables} clean.

Caduceus myth

Mercury's magic wand {Caduceus}.

centaur myth

Savage animals {centaur, myth}|, half men and half horse, include Chiron, friend to man.


Dog {Cerberus} guards the gates of hell.


A whirlpool {Charybdis} is next to Scylla.

Eleusinean mysteries

Religious celebration {Eleusinean mysteries} honors Demeter.

Elysian fields

Blessed place {Elysian fields} in Underworld is for the good.


Fate {Fate} controls men's destinies and deaths.

genius as spirit

Roman spirits {genius, god}| attend all people and places.

Golden Age myth

A time {Golden Age} of peace and happiness was in Italy, when Saturn ruled.

Golden Fleece

Fleece {Golden Fleece} was sought and obtained by Jason and Argonauts, with the help of Medea.

Gordian Knot

Complicated knot {Gordian Knot} was in oracle's temple in Phrygia. Whoever untied it was lord of Asia. Alexander the Great hacked it open.

Halcyon days

For seven winter days {Halcyon days}, sea is calm.

Labyrinth myth

Daedalus built a maze {Labyrinth} to hold the Minotaur.


River {Lethe} of Forgetfulness is in underworld.

lotus of gods

Sweet flowers {lotus, myth}| make one forget all longings.

Meander myth

River {Meander} in Phrygia had many twists and turns.


drink of gods {nectar}|.


home of Greek and Roman Gods {Olympus}.

Pillars of Hercules myth

Hercules put rocks {Rock of Gibraltar} {Pillars of Hercules, myth} at mouth of Mediterranean Sea during his tenth labor.

Saturnalia myth

From December 17 to December 23, a feast {Saturnalia} commemorated reign of Saturn over Earth in Golden Age.

Styx myth

River {Styx} of the unbreakable oath is one of the three rivers of Hades.


Deepest part {Tartarus} of hell holds Titans and Giants.


death {Thanatos}.

Trojan Horse myth

Large wooden horse {Trojan Horse} left by Greeks for Trojans contained Greek soldiers, who attacked after the horse was brought inside Troy.

Zephyr myth

west wind {Zephyr}.


Norse mythology

Scandinavia had mythology {Norse mythology}. Gods were Odin, Thor, and Loki. Main goddess is Freya.



sea god {Aegir}.


Norse gods {Aesir}.


Odin's wise son {Balder}.


goddess of love and beauty {Freya}.


A giant's son {Loki} hated the Good. Loki killed another god with a stone.


The All-Father {Odin} {sky god} was chief god, gained wisdom by losing eye, and gave man runes and mead, both for poetry. Odin is northern name, and Woden is southern name.


Thunder God {Thor} was strongest Norse God, possessor of thunderbolts and hammer. Thor struggled with the World Serpent, pulled it out of sea, and killed it with his hammer. He also fought many-headed giant. He had red beard, which when it shook caused storms. He also had sacred ring, symbol of law and order. Throwing hammer of Thor replaced ax as weapon of sky god. Swastika was symbol of sky god. Thor was God of Justice.


Armed and mounted Norse virgins {Valkyries} were daughters of gods, selectors of the slain, attendants to Odin, and servants at Asgard.


Freyja and Freyr were chief gods in an earlier race {Vanir} of gods.


southern name of chief Norse god {Woden}.


Norse people

Brunhilde, Sigurd, and Siegfried were people in Norse legends {Norse people}. Sigmund the Volsung, Hadding, and Harold Wartooth were Odin's heroes. Sigurd the Volsung killed dragon. Two birds warned him of the dragon's brother, a treacherous smith. He roasted the dragon's heart, burned his thumb, and thus sucked inspirational dragon's blood. Someone murdered Sigurd.


The hero Siegfried saved Valkyrie {Brunhilde} {Brunhild} and loved her.


Sigurd's brother {Gunnar} died in a snake pit, when King Atli took revenge.


giant {Hymir}.

Ragmar Lothbrok

Hero {Ragmar Lothbrok} slew dragon. His sons captured England.


Volsung's son {Sigmund} had a sister, Signy, who saved him from death. He then avenged himself on the murder of his father and brother.


A hero {Sigurd} {Siegfried} rescued Brunhilde from fire and married Gudrun. The wrath of Brunhilde killed him, and then she killed herself.



home of gods {Asgard}.


Twilight of the Gods or downfall of gods {Götterdämmerung}.


Fates {Norns}.


Earth will face destruction in the future {Ragnarok} {Ops} {Twilight of the Gods}.

rune of gods

Magical inscriptions {rune, Norse}| were for protection.


Icelandic magic sign {torshamarr}.


The home {Valhalla} of dead Norse heroes is a room of Asgard.


An ash tree {Yggdrasil} was between heaven, Earth, and hell. Mimir was well at one root. Odin drank of it to gain wisdom.



Religions {Shintoism} can be animistic and be Japan's indigenous religion. Shinto rituals are about purification. Sun goddess is the greatest god and is ancestress of emperors.


Shinto has festivals {bon} for ancestors.


One should practice purification {harai}.


good spirits {Kami}.



Monotheistic religions {Sikhism} can follow Hindu practices and emphasize devotion to God and love of people. Sikhism rejects castes and church leaders. Sikh means student or learner.


Men have uncut hair all over body {kesh}, wear full-length cotton underwear {kaccha}, keep short knife {kirpan}, have comb for long hair {kangha}, wear steel bracelet {kara}, and wear turban.


Vaisakhi is new year's day, in mid-April, and is a holiday honoring Gobind Singh.

number of Sikhs

World has 20,000,000 Sikhs, 2% of India's people.


House of worship or "gateway to the guru" {gurdwara}.

guru in Sikhism

Nine gurus {guru, Sikhism} came after the first, Nanak. Gobind Singh was the 10th and last Sikh guru.

Singh as lion

Sikh warriors can be lions {Singh}.


tao in Taoism

In Taoism, the way or path {tao, Taoism} is the mystical underlying principle of all things. It is transcendent, as ultimate reality. It is immanent as universe itself. It is the order in people's lives, as serenity and grace. It emphasizes simple living with no desires, much contemplation, and few activities. Spontaneity, naturalness, and openness have value. In Esoteric Taoism, tao is psychic power of societal links and so relates to mysticism. In popular Taoism, tao relates to magic. Many secret societies in China are Taoist.

wu wei

Creative quietude {wu wei} is yielding to tao.

yin-yang in Taoism

Male {yin, Taoism} and female {yang, Taoism}, philosopher and king, Heaven and Earth, or creating and destroying forces exist in necessary pairs {yin-yang, Taoism} {yang and yin} {yin and yang}. Yang is unbroken lines, and yin is broken lines. They must have balance. Yang and yin cause movement, cycles, and opposites. Nothing can be permanent or dominant for long. Because all values are relative, even contrary things share identity.



Religions {Zoroastrianism} can be about good, as the sun god and light, versus evil, as darkness. Zoroastrians number 150,000, with 60,000 in Iran.


Zoroastrianism is basically monotheistic. Ahura-Mazda or Ormuzd has fire as symbol, created the universe, gave ox as holy animal to man, and leads gods {Amesha Spentas} of goodness. Angra Mainyu or Ahriman is Destructive Spirit, who leads the evil ancient Persian gods {daevas}.


Light or good and darkness or evil are the two universe principles and are always in conflict. Their war causes all motion. Good and evil forces are equal, but good will win at universe end, and paradise will come.


First man was Mashya, and first woman was Mashyana. Yima saved the animals from the flood. His successor Thraetaona had three sons, and Airya, Sairima, and Tura divided Earth.


Before Zoroaster, the three saints were Vivanghant, Athwya, and Thrita. Zoroaster or Zarathustra founded the religion [-630].



Zoroastrians {Ghebers} are in Iran.


Zoroastrians {Parsee} {Parsi} are in India.



Holiday of shortest daylight of the year {Chelleh} {Yalda} is approximately December 21 in Persia.


Holiday of first day of autumn {Mihrgan} is approximately September 21 in Persia.


Holiday of first day of spring {Nowruz} is approximately March 21 in Persia.


Holiday of fire discovery {Sadeh} is approximately January 30 in Persia.

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