Educating students {education} can give larger perspective, more liberal viewpoint, weaker religious belief, and more sophistication. Education can provide philosophy that is useful, true, and meaningful. Education can explore ethical dilemmas, language uses, work environments, social situations, family relations, political activities, economic transactions, and dyadic relations. Students can try different environments, such as intellectual, creative, historical, problem solving, social, emotional, economic, aesthetic, work, family, sports, leisure, community, and cultures. Education can provide skills for getting jobs. Education can provide more independence. Students can learn to make decisions rationally. Students can become good citizens.


Education has objectives. Curricula match development and encourage development. Opportunity is equal. Learning environment is safe, clean, and supportive. Education has many methods. Education is enjoyable.


Education can be for its own sake, vocation, vocational skills, personal autonomy, obeying moral rules, character, citizenship, higher things in life, socialization, and self-understanding.

goals: meaning

Something meaningful is a worthwhile task to do, based on love of something or someone. Task must be possible. Activities associated with task must be pleasant. Goals are challenges that people can meet. People can make goals more important than selves and so become something more than self.

goals: likes

People like to share common goals with other people. People like to feel that they reach goals by their efforts. People like universals, to give meaning to existence and to systematize knowledge. People like to follow ideals. People like to master their environment and tasks. People like to strive to be better and have the best human qualities. People like curiosity. People like action, adventure, challenge, and variety, with minimal danger and freedom from dependency. People like to play. People like friends and lovers. People like to possess enough resources so they feel no scarcity and no constraint. People like to be secure and control their future and their children's future. People like to escape pain, suffering, and death.

curriculum school

Schools have programs of studies {curriculum}|. Curriculum can emphasize general education {liberal arts, curriculum} or specialization to prepare for work {industrial arts, curriculum}.

personal autonomy

Education helps know and choose goals for oneself {personal autonomy}|.



Classrooms {classroom, education} have activities, discipline, lesson plans, methods, and environments.


Classrooms can have beanbag, bedspread, bench, blanket, book, bottle, box, brush, can, carpet, chair, chalkboard, cloth, clothes, crayon, dolly, drum, foam, glue, hammock, mat, musical instrument, paper clip, paint, paper, paste, pencil, pen, pillow, pin, punching bag, ramp, rope, rug, sand, scissors, seed, sofa, spring, staple, step stool, stick, string, Styrofoam, tire pump, tire tube, tool, towel, utensil, water, wheel, wire, and wood.

army analogy

Teachers lead drafted recruits. Like army, objectives have best presentation.

hospital analogy

Students are like patients, because they have problem that someone can cure. Teachers can treat students as if they have disease to cure. Students receive sympathy and care. Students follow prescriptions. Students participate in their diagnosis and treatment. Teachers diagnose, treat, monitor, and cure their patients, to patient satisfaction. Teachers explain expected results, time needed, and options.

Teachers are like doctors, who help individuals by appointment or in emergency and have support from technicians and administrators. Like doctors, teachers are independent professionals. Like doctors, teachers have specialty or are general practitioners. Like doctors, teachers have experience levels: student, intern, resident, and doctor. Like doctors, teachers set hours, set fees, do research, and bill for services. Like doctors at teaching hospitals, teachers know their subject and know how to teach. Good doctors and teachers are kindly, helpful, understanding, sympathetic, knowledgeable, optimistic, happy, confident, funny, interested in subject, and interested in people. Students and patients participate in their treatment and good habits.

Learning standards are like health standards. Schools have accreditation, like hospitals. Schools are spotless and clean, like hospitals. Patients never want to trash hospital, because it is for them and they need it badly.

discipline in class

Teachers can control student behavior {discipline, class}.

classroom rules

Have firm and fair rules.


Have organized classroom. Have sympathy and understanding.

behavior: first day

On first class day, state expected behaviors and their rewards and punishable behaviors and their punishments. State that students must make choices, teacher makes no compromises, and discipline is top priority. Send letter to parents about philosophy and goals.

behavior: lying

If student lies, say, "You wish that" followed by lie.

behavior: discipline

To respond to bad behavior, state that bad behavior is unacceptable, state correct behavior, and apply consequence based on rules. Do not relent or change this procedure. Stop bad behavior immediately. State student feelings. Do not criticize or insult, boss or preach, accuse or threaten, or bribe or promise. Do not fight, argue, threaten, or abuse. Be active and vigilant against bad behavior. Do not ignore bad behavior. Do not stop lesson, only request bad behavior to stop by naming student.

behavior: communication

When disciplining, communicate calmly, clearly, and firmly. Give reasons for discipline. Write down offense, name, time, and place. Do not converse with student. Write consequences and reasons. Allow students to talk about their feelings. Praise good behavior. Ridicule, sarcasm, and punishment can cause avoidance.

behavior: request

Never demand anything, only request. When making requests of students, make request immediately after problem, with no delay. Do not allow delay in response. Follow up request. State request as student's choice: proper behavior or punishment. After refusal, repeat request, reason, and choice, and increase punishment, if necessary.

problem causes

Unhappiness, low success, low self-confidence, low personal identity, low self-worth, little love given or received, loneliness, failure, and defensiveness can cause student problems.


Punishment levels are the following. Write name. Subtract recess or lunch. Keep after school. Listen to tape recording. Call parents. Visit principal. Send home to parents. Students sent somewhere need escort.

classroom environment

Good classroom environments {classroom, environment} have few students, high expectations, high achievement, firm discipline, strict attendance, few interruptions, humor, complete materials for all students, continual activity, many teaching methods, trained teachers, full-time teachers, and few administrative tasks for teachers.


Classes have one subject.


Authoritarianism can cause conformity and shyness. Authoritarianism can cause defiance and escape.

girls in high school

Girls do not work well in junior high or high school, where students move from class to class. Students do not know teacher well, because teacher has too many students. Junior high and high school are not like real world, where people work on stable small teams. Elementary schools are more like home and work.

course outline

Course descriptions {course outline}| can have course name, credit units, semester, year, teacher, class hours, classroom, office location, and office hours. It lists study topics and textbooks by title, author, date, company, and city. It has attendance policy, class participation requirements, homework rules, laboratory rules, essay rules, extra credit work, reading, projects, papers, tests, final exam schedule, and final exam policy.

Grading system includes percentages for laboratory, reading, papers, attendance, tests, and final exam.

Course schedule has daily reading assignments, reviews, tests, and problems.

Objectives can be vocabulary words, reasons how and why, problems, principles, processes, and people.


Grades {grading, education} can be substitute for real understanding.


Students can work at home {homework}|. Homework is doable in reasonable time. It practices something that students already know. It is not too difficult, so students do not copy. It is regular, not intermittent. It starts in class. Teacher checks it but does not grade it. If goal or activity is time or energy consuming, do one part at a time, as if it were many activities.

lesson plan

Plans {lesson plan} can have header, including subject/title, preparer, class name or level, time required, objectives, prerequisites needed, skills needed, and resources needed.

heading section

Subject: Making a Doctor Appointment and Using Health and Community Resources. Prepared By: teacher name. Level: Beginning ESL. Time: 3 hours. Objectives are to request doctor appointment, to answer secretary's questions, and to write appointment information obtained. Prerequisites are to identify and verbalize different sickness signs. Language Skills are request information, respond to questions, and describe physical problem. Resources are overhead projector, book, and attachment.


First lesson-plan part is Warm-Up and Review. Short lecture gives facts and definitions. Class discussion includes what topic is, who has done it, problems encountered, need to know it, and methods to use or alternatives. Personalized story states problem and solution. Demonstration from previous day uses objects and questions. Video shows previous day's work. Audio has previous day's work.

warmup: section

1. Tell class personal story about when call for doctor appointment was necessary. Example is "Last Monday, I got up to get ready for work, but my daughter woke up crying from headache and stomach ache. I felt her forehead. It was very hot. I had to call the doctor." 2. Start discussion using the following questions and answers: How can you find doctor name and number, in telephone book yellow or white pages? How can you use directory assistance, 411 for local calls, to help you find the number if you know the name? How did you get doctor when you needed one? How can you find the doctor you need, from friends and at work?

Review is at class beginning and end.


Second lesson-plan part is Presentation. Demonstration uses objects and questions. Video shows work example. Audio has work example. Personalized story is about work. Attention is to main words and phrases. There are questions and answers about topic.

presentation: section

1. Show Attachment 1 on overhead projector. Let students name symptoms and sickness types. 2. Draw secretary on one board side and patient on other board side. Then write conversation on blackboard. Read conversation and explain vocabulary. Read conversation and let students repeat after you. Read secretary part while students read patient part and then reverse roles. Let women be the patient and men the secretary, and then reverse roles. Let one side be patient and let other side be secretary and then reverse roles.


Third lesson-plan part is Practice. Worksheets have practice work for filling the blanks, choosing correct answer, or writing summary. Games practice the work, with teams. Group activities, auch as one-act plays with pairs, three or four people, or whole class, practice the work. Practice has two parts, with break between them.

practice: section

1. Pass out handout "Do you want to make an appointment?" Divide class into pairs. Students practice dialogues in pairs. Circulate around class helping and observing. 2. Have student pairs make up dialogues and practice, using handout as model. Class breaks at 1.5 hours, for 10 minutes. Practice: 3. Have students put down handout and practice. 4. Have students write made-up dialogues. 5. Select volunteer pairs to read and act dialogues in class. 6. Select volunteers to make up dialogue in class, without using papers. Students perform step 5 or 6.


Fourth lesson-plan part is Application. Do new experiment. Have student-teacher dialog or student-student dialog. Make presentation to class.

application: section

1. Ask students to think about health problems that they or family members have had or about work health examinations. 2. Instruct them to find doctor name in that specialty. Tell them to make real appointment with that doctor for self, friend, or family member. 3. Ask them to be ready to relate how they felt while making that appointment.


Fifth lesson-plan part is Evaluation. Oral quiz makes student respond to teacher. Written quiz fills in blanks, chooses correct answer, or writes summary. Class discussion can be about lesson value and improvements, including whether students learned it or not and if it was valuable or not. There can be questions and answers about lesson.

evaluation: section

1. Listen to student dialogues to check language-structure-and-usage mastery. Ask students if they feel confident enough to make real call for doctor appointment at home.


Sixth lesson-plan part is Homework, such as reading, worksheets, or problems.

homework: section

1. Read in textbook. 2. Do worksheet. 3. Practice dialog with friend.


Seventh lesson-plan part is Library Materials, with reference list, supplementary materials, and extra reading.

library: section

1. Textbook. 2. ESL teacher handbook. 3. Video.


Libraries {library}| have no trouble with students, because students choose to be there, have reason to be there, and have job to do. Librarians always help them get job done. Students can find references in book or article in library. Students know reference works in library.

textbook in education

Books {textbook, education} can define words and mark them clearly, using definitions based on what typical students already know. Textbooks give reasons, examples, explanations, analogies, and context. Textbooks leave out unimportant details. Textbooks build from simple to complex.


classroom activities

Class activities {classroom, activities} are specific learning tasks, for both lower and higher skills.


Activities can be pleasant, vivid, and important, with noise, touch, action, and personal interaction.


Teachers can group similar students together, require answers from groups, require evidence and reasons, and require no dominance in groups. Students discuss only among themselves. Teachers receive discussion results. Student ideas depend on limited knowledge and uncritical thinking. Teachers have probably heard all possible ideas from students after one year. Teachers comment on group ideas. Teachers allow feedback from students.


Teachers can simulate real-life situation, as play. Teachers can let students defend and attack hypothesis. Teachers can read story and have students predict ending. Teachers can present case history of student from another culture.


Teachers can allow play for intuition, self-motivation, and action opportunities.

practical activity

Activities can demonstrate understanding and ability to use knowledge in real life. Students can do independent study projects, with library and other research. Students can perform volunteer work and community service. Students can have part-time job or internship. Students can visit community institutions.


Teachers can present two different authorities that contradict each other. Teachers can present two passages with two different perspectives, for students to compare and contrast. Teachers can present paradox. Teachers can present data that is against common sense. Teachers can present data that contains problem.


dialogue method

In a class style {dialogue method}|, students present opinions and try different roles. Big round tables are best. Students have different seats each day. Students prepare for discussion by preparing answers to question sets. Students can lead discussions. Teachers summarize discussion and add questions.

discovery method

In a class style {experience method} {discovery method}| {induction method}, teachers pose situation or problem and ask students to find solution.


After exposure through field trip, project, or audio-visual, student can explore subject. Students express their feelings and beliefs, explain their ideas, find manipulation consequences, and reflect on their work when finished.


Discovery teaches cooperation and material selection and organization. Discovery is good for curiosity and motivation. Discovery method is useful if much time is available.

expository lesson

Teachers can move around, demonstrate, use audio-visuals, use humor, pause, and gesture {expository lesson}| {lecture method}.


Lectures are for summarizing, explaining difficult topics, introducing, relating several things, and explaining logically or chronologically.


Lectures state objective at beginning. Lectures emphasize main points. Lectures relate new ideas to old. To provide visual images, lectures use stories, personal feelings, case histories, contradictions, and demonstrations.


Lectures use inductive reasoning by examples, leading to definition, solution, or principle. Lectures use deductive reasoning to define concept, compare to other ideas, analyze idea, give examples, and use in new situations. For logical structure, lectures use cause and effect, process, chronological order, classification, or comparison and contrast.

group learning

Groups can share and discuss ideas {group learning}. Students have roles.


Groups can have two students, three students, six to twenty students, or whole class.


Problem can come from reading, contradiction, society, emotions, game, or case history.


Group reaches consensus after discussing ideas and experiences. Teacher and other groups review results.


Students learn to express their ideas openly in real world, find friend, listen, and express personal things in way accepted by others. Groups practice group communication, improve group organization, study social or emotional problems, or work on large projects. Groups can have more and better ideas than individuals. Groups can set values for individuals.

inquiry method

In a class style {inquiry method}| {investigation method}, teachers solve problem by searching and thinking. Inquiries can teach cooperation, exploration, motor skills, research techniques, hypothesis building and testing, scientific method, and independence. Inquiries can increase motivation. Inquiries are useful only if much time is available. Inquiries can be in laboratory or in the field.

programmed learning

Class styles {programmed learning}| can use software program containing short steps, each about observable or measurable data, to build induction. Program knows all possible errors. Teacher supplements computer.

recitation method

In a class style {questioning method} {recitation method}|, teachers ask few questions, at all levels, to particular students by name. Recitation method is for after students are familiar with subject. Recitations are like formative information-recall tests.

simulation method

Class styles {simulation method}| {game method} can be for poor learners.


Mentors can assist and judge student progress on independent projects or improvement programs {tutorial}|. Students are usually motivated already. Mentors set example for students. Because mentors judge work personally, high quality typically results. Tutorials are for independent study.



People can find jobs {job}.


Jobs differ in salary, status, power, and security. Industries and companies grow and prosper at different rates. Promotion possibility is low for small and poorly performing businesses and high for large or growing businesses. Small businesses need more leadership, while large ones require more fitting in. Personal growth is unlikely in jobs that require little knowledge. Jobs differ in travel frequency and distance. Jobs differ in relocation frequency. Jobs can be in cities, towns and rural areas, or outside country.

Different organization types include governments, education, foundations, charities, other non-profits, large businesses, small businesses, franchises, partnerships, and individual ownership. Businesses can attract specific personality types. Different jobs require more or fewer people to work with, or to deal with. Jobs differ in responsibility and decision-making. Jobs can be quieter or have different smells. Jobs can require few or many supplies and equipment. Jobs can provide services to others or coerce and pressure others. Jobs require different knowledge levels. Jobs can have leisure time or be during seasons. Jobs can require problem solving.

Businesses can be new or old. New businesses put more value on growth and creativity. Old businesses put more value on security.

job: questions

Which jobs do you want to do? What are your ideal jobs, in value order? What skills do you need for those jobs? Do you have or will have skills needed? Do you have schedule of when you will fulfill goals and acquire skills? Have you thought about problems and risks you have in meeting plans? Is job type that you want related to needs, values, goals, and skills?

job: information

Newspapers, family, friends, government employment agencies, private employment agencies, college placement agencies, job registers, and job-title books have job-type information.

job: ad

You typically must respond to 20 or more advertisements to get one interview. Newspapers, journals, and online sites have advertisements. Some specialize in industries or professions. Always check target company websites or ask companies by email or letter.

Advertisements can have no company name {blind advertisement}, but usually they do {open advertisement}.

Ten days after answering advertisement, resend letter and resume.

job: conditions

Conditions are travel, commute, physical danger, detailed work, repetition, reading, writing, noise, temperature, crowding, stress, task number, regular hours, decision-making, working with others, self-scheduling, rural or urban, moving, teams/projects, subbing, temp, and contract.

network: current contacts

Initial contact can start with people {contacts} whom you know will return call, such as family, friends, neighbors, and co-workers. Other contacts can be suppliers, customers, personal professionals, community organizations, professional organizations, alumni, and religious groups.

Groups have networks, from which you can select people.

Close contacts typically cannot articulate what you do or how you do it. You must inform them.

You can list at least 10 initial contacts and typically 100. Use business cards, address books, email addresses, Christmas cards, and past correspondence to make list.

network: relationship

People can share their values, activities, and interests, such as among people in same family, company, religion, college, profession, political party, frequented businesses, or neighborhood {relationship network}.

Get referrals, advice, information about companies and markets, and feedback about your communications.

statements: differentiating

State your achievements, attitudes, or values, relative to work, that distinguish you from others with similar skills.

statements: previous organization

Do not criticize previous company, managers, or workers.

statements: alternative careers

State what you want, perhaps want, and do not want as job objective, job roles/tasks, target market, location, company size, company culture, travel, and schedule.

personal: age

Age supplies experience and short learning time. Age allows company not to provide career paths or succession lines. Age provides mentors. Age allows project-oriented work, without thinking about future authority lines. However, age can limit skills and knowledge, requiring training. Age can require higher salary. Age can resist change. Age can mean discomfort with younger supervisors. Age can demand power and status. Age can cause sickness, tiredness, laziness, and low curiosity. Age can require security. Age can engender cynicism, rather than optimism.

personal: feelings

What feelings do you have about your present life? What makes you happy and why? What pattern or continuity is in your life? What are the main drives and motivations?

personal: stress

People can have depression, anxiety, and anger, especially after rejections. This can cause lowered activity. Confidence and worth feelings can decrease. Friends and colleagues avoid you. Work loss causes irregular schedules, less organization, and more procrastination. Unemployed people have all responsibility, with no help from co-workers or company resources.

personal: goals

What are your goals? What hopes do you have for the future? What things do you want to accomplish someday? Why do you want to do them? What do you wish and desire? Are you active, assertive, and confident enough to reach goals? Do you need, or like, help from someone else?

personal: likes

What things do you want to own or work with? What are pleasantest and most unpleasant memories, hobbies, people, places, activities, or achievements? Why were they good or not good? What things, people, and activities do you avoid?

personal: traits

Traits can be about personality opposites, such as extrovert/introvert or detail-oriented/high-level.

personal: values

Values are about what is important to you, what is important in society, and what most humans share. Personal values are about status, wealth, power, independence, risk-taking, control, religion, relations with people, reactions to mistakes, need for approval, and need for achievement. Societal values affect language, classes, education, government, law, economics, businesses, and associations. Human values are attitudes toward life, war/peace, love, hardship, and justice.

personal: job values

What value do security, status, power, wealth, service to others, knowledge, leisure time, responsibility, chance to make decisions, and problem solving have? What can change right now to make things better for others and self?

personal: strengths

State strengths relative to company needs.

personal: weaknesses

State how perceived weaknesses is really advantage or state what you are doing to remedy your weakness.

career planning

To choose a career {career planning}, you can use personality tests, aptitude tests, counseling, job and job market studies, industry studies, and motivation.

contingency fee

Hires cost fees {contingency fee}| or retainers for long-term services.


Identify yourself to secretary {gatekeeper}. Be courteous. Collect names. Leave voice mail with your name, shared contact, reason for call, and when you will call back.


To get job {hiring}|, manager or executive that can hire you must get to know you. Managers know company needs, goals, problems, and specific work needed.

hiring process

For one quarter of job openings, managers create applicant pools, screen applicants, and interview people.

For few jobs, managers create positions to meet company needs as identified by applicants, applicants discuss job with hiring manager and develop proposals, and company hires.

For most jobs, managers already have applicants, and company hires one.

You typically contact 20 to 30 hiring managers before getting job. Recontact hiring managers every two to four weeks.

hiring manager

You must meet the manager that can hire you. Meet before there is job opening, if possible. Send resumes and introductory cover letters to such managers at target companies, located online or through contacts, and get referrals, if possible. Set up meeting by telephone. Try to have at least two talks each week. Study companies, departments, and projects. List questions about goals, products, projects, achievements, challenges, values, and culture. Have job objective. Have positioning statement. Have resume. Have calendar.


To set up meeting, state your name. State who referred you and relationship, or state how you found manager name. State meeting purpose: to give manager useful information, to discuss common interest, to present your ideas, or to discuss industry in location. Suggest time.

Place is at manager office.

Meet for 30 minutes. Talk about who referred you and relationship, meeting purposes, and objectives. Discuss company and manager needs. Show how your accomplishments and competencies meet those needs. Arrange second meeting or notify that you will follow up.


Follow with letter, telephone call, and meeting, every two to four weeks. Do not request anything; only thank and give more information. Start with line that must elicit answer. Be sincere and energetic.


Job seeker typically requires five serious interviews to get job. Jobseeker gets five serious interviews out of 20 or 30 talks with hiring managers.


Department managers {managing} hire and direct work groups, such as programmers or writers. Senior manager heads company function, such as for similar products or information technology. Regional manager leads local department managers. General manager or senior executive heads company or unit and is responsible for profits and losses (P & L).

objective for job

Work {objective, job} can be sales, marketing, manufacturing, legal, human resources, public relations, information technology, finance, senior management, technical support, product testing, engineering, software development, or communications. List roles or tasks that you like or in which you have experience. Dictionary of Occupational Titles from USA Department of Labor lists job titles.


People can introduce you to other people {referral}.

retainer as job fee

Hires can cost contingency fees or there are long-term services fees {retainer, agency}|.

job resource

Association meetings, volunteer work, workshops, tradeshows, and web sites {resource, job} {job resources} provide networking.

employment agencies

State employment agency offers career transition aids, job training, job search help, placement service, job referrals, unemployment insurance, and disability insurance.


Public library has business section and career information, such as information about companies, associations, and governments.


Maps are available online.

networking online

Online networks provide site for networking.


Online sites provide searchable job listings, information about careers, salaries, information about industries, information about companies, and searchable articles. They help with resumes and allow resume posting. Many are specific to location, recruiter, industry, government, or skill. Information about stocks, finances, startups, capital flows, and statistics is online.


job documents

Make business card with name, job type or job objectives, competencies, telephone, fax, URI, and email {job documents}. Add qualifications summary on back.

accomplishment statement

For story {accomplishment story}, state activity/responsibility/problem/situation, difficulties that you faced, your action, and quantified results. For statement {accomplishment statement}, state action and result. Such statements/stories define your skills, knowledge, and roles.

Activities are solving problems, starting new system/procedure, managing people, deciding, planning, participating in team, and writing report or other publication.

Results are increasing efficiency, accuracy, money, productivity, or morale; decreasing cost or time; and getting bonus, compliment, honor, or promotion.

career profile

Summarize your career {career profile}.


List ten favorite things that you did. List ten things that you liked least. List locations at which you can work. List industries and companies. Note company sizes and styles. List job types. List ideal job and company. List compensation that you want/expect. List long-term objectives. List objective risks/constraints.


List knowledge and skills. List all jobs in chronological order, from most recent back. List education and training. List credentials and licenses. List honors. List publications and creative works. List community activities. List recreational activities. List languages. List references.

cover letter

At letter {cover letter}| top, write name, address, email address, and telephone number. Write date. Write recipient name, title, organization, and address. Write salutation to "Manager". State job title and location and where advertisement was. Talk about company. Match job description/requirements to your experience, competencies, and skills. Optionally state your knowledge of, and value to, company. State that you enclose resume. State that you will call or email and ask for interview at set time. Thank reader for time and attention. Close with "Sincerely," and your name.

exit statement

State what happened at company over last year, then state that you are looking for new opportunities, in company type, in job type {exit statement}. It answers the questions "Why did you leave your job?" and "Why are you looking for work?".

followup letter

At letter {followup letter} top, write name, address, email address, and telephone number. Write date. Write recipient name, title, organization, and address. Write salutation to interviewer. Thank interviewer and state job title and location. Review how job description/requirements matched your experience and skills. Correct errors, add requested information, and add new thoughts. State that you will call or email. Close with "Sincerely," and your name.

marketing plan

Write a plan {marketing plan} to market yourself. Plan has job objectives and preferences within that objective, Positioning Statement with competencies list, Target Market, and Target List. Have two plans and pursue both at once.

mission statement

State achievements that you want to accomplish in life {mission statement}.

positioning statement

State your competencies, skills, and knowledge, with experiences and personal characteristics {positioning statement}. State company types, sizes, and cultures. State what you see as your unique strengths in competency or skill. Positioning statements answer the request "Tell me about yourself."

references list

State name, title, department, company, and telephone number {references}|. People check references before or after last interview. Businesses check references mainly by telephone. References can be co-workers, supervisors, subordinates, customers, suppliers, association members, team members, and project members. Do not use friends or non-work-related references. Always state relationship. Ask permission and give them resume copy. Keep in contact with references.


Job applications can include education, skill, experience, and objective summaries {resume} {resumé}|.


Resumes have heading, objective, summary, work history with responsibilities and bulleted accomplishments, education, training, skills, memberships, languages, licenses/credentials, military, and publications.

Chronological resumé lists work history from recent to former and is for same type job, in traditional companies. Functional resumé emphasizes qualifications and is for career changes or returns to career.


Resumes show that you have education and experience in industry, company type, and/or job.


Use one or two pages.


Make it typewritten. Use 12-point font. Use 65 characters per line. End lines with returns. Do not use tabs. Use asterisks for bullets. Separate sections with dashes. Do not use bold or underline, only uppercase. Check for spelling and grammar.

Email resume to yourself and check it.


Do not use "I", only verbs. Use short paragraphs. Do not abbreviate.

parts: heading

At top, write your name, address, email address, and telephone number.

parts: objective

Write short description, including company type and industry, of job for which you are applying.

parts: qualifications summary

Summarize your qualifications and career highlights.

parts: skills

List your skills for this job, such as training, with number of years, and languages.

parts: education

List school name, degree, field, year, and honors. List credentials you have that job requires.

parts: experience

List employers, addresses, dates, job titles, and job descriptions, including responsibilities, activities, achievements, honors, and promotions. For jobs, state problem/project/responsibility, your solution, and quantified results.

Show continuous work history, with no gaps. You do not need to use months, only years.

parts: organizations

List professional societies, clubs, honors, community work, hobbies, and sports. Give military record only if required.

parts: references

State that references will be sent on request, or, if required, list three references, including name, address, and phone, using one teacher, one employer, and one character witness.

parts: publications

List publications.

leave out

Do not use photographs, age, marital status, children, or other personal information.

summary statement

Summarize your experience, skills, and competencies {summary statement}, using job-description and target-market keywords. First state job title, responsibilities, and traits in one paragraph and then list your competencies/accomplishments.

target list

List 50 companies at which you want to work {target list}. State company size, by revenue or employees. State organization style or culture. Include name, address, email, phone, URI, contact name and phone, size, and financial status. Concentrate on managers that can hire you. Read about target company needs, products, services, finances, history, customers, workers, locations, sizes, and cultures. Add, subtract, and prioritize targets. Talk to people in organizations and send resumes/cover letters, read printed and online newspapers, journals, and databases. Check target competitors.

vision statement

Write company type, job type, challenges, excitements, honors, and achievements {vision statement} that you expect in next five years.

6-Education-Job-Employment Agency

employment agency

Agencies {employment agency}| {staffing agency} can help you get interviews, but chance is low. Agencies differ by industry or profession, and by success rates. Employers pay fees. You must sign contract.


Agencies {executive search firm} {recruiter}| {headhunter} can help you get interviews, but chance is low. Agencies differ by industry or profession, and by success rates. Employers pay recruiters. Hires can cost contingency fees or retainers for long-term services. Recruiters use customers, competitors, suppliers, association executives, regulatory agency officials, faculty members, publication editors, and industry lawyers, financiers, and accountants {sourcing}. Insist that they notify you before they send resume to anyone.



If resume is successful, you will have interview {interview}|.


Wear conservative clothes, like suit. Groom well. Look neat. You already have confidence that you can do job well and that job fits your goals and skills. Be ready to be confident, sincere, smiling, energetic, and friendly. Be ready to listen. Be ready to treat everyone courteously and with respect. List references. List questions. Copy the resume. Take your research notes. Take your correspondence. Obtain interviewer names and titles. Ready your accomplishment stories and competencies. Check materials and web site about company. Find key names. Determine allotted time. Arrive early enough to read lobby materials.

interview formats

Traditional interview has interviewer asking questions and applicant answering. Strategic interview has interviewer asking questions and applicant answering, plus discussion of company and manager needs and applicant competencies relative to needs.


Questions are about experience, skills, latest job, work experience, activities, accomplishments, competencies, style, and values. Questions are about why you like this company and contributions you could make. Questions about age, birthplace, nationality, race, religion, arrests, marital status, children, height, weight, drugs, hobbies, unions, and disabilities are not appropriate.

questions: goals

Questions are about objective, goals, ideal job, three-year to five-year goal, career-change plans, previous goals and results, motivations, and values.

questions: problems

Questions are about job-related problems, reason for leaving, dislikes, likes, and drug test.

questions: training

Questions are about education, training, courses, uses, and problems solved.

questions: weaknesses

Questions {knockout questions} are about weaknesses, weakness situations, problems, strengths, overqualifications, criticisms received, boredom, laziness, pressure responses, conflicts, diversity, power use, disagreements with boss, and adaptability. State that you are overcoming them or learning from them.

questions: salary

Questions are about salary or range.

question: types

Interview has three question types. Why do you want job in company? What can you do for company or person? What is salary you want? Talk about the future you expect to have with company in job, not about future jobs. Talk about organization needs, problems, and future. Show how your skills fit those needs. Be ready for questions about the past. Give usual salary range for job.


Be informal and friendly. Use two or three sentence answers. Do not say anything bad about oneself. Remember that interviewer probably has little skill in interviewing. Do not apologize or be defensive. Admit you do not know. Do not argue or become irritated.

If asked about which job type you want, tell why you like industry, why you like company, why you like job, and what your career plans are. If asked why you want to leave present job, or why you do not have job, talk about what you want more of, such as responsibility, opportunity to be creative or independent, field or industry knowledge, self knowledge, personal development, and/or salary. If asked about present job, talk about chances for promotion, achievements, and present salary. If asked about your present job and workers, state facts without criticizing workers, supervisors, or company. If asked about skills, state your best skills, how skills relate to job and company needs, and situations in which you used skill. If asked about weaknesses, state weakness only if you mention what you are doing to correct it and without apology. If asked to take tests, say yes.


Summarize meeting and express interest. Arrange second meeting or contact. Send followups. Do not accept job at interview. State time you will give answer. After job offer, discuss salary and get offer and salary in writing.


People {interviewee} need to know if skills, experience, and competencies are enough and liked, to see the fit with company people and culture, and to receive enough pay and benefits.

interviewee questions

Responsibilities, job description, expectations, immediate needs, position history, next higher position, qualifications needed {interviewee questions}. Resources, co-workers, current experience, current training, training programs, budget, support from other departments. Authority, hiring/terminating, command chain, reports, supervisor history, supervisor experience, supervisor training, decision-making process, documented procedures, documented policies, budgeting, approvals. Performance, goals, goal making process, evaluation process, expectations, rewards/bonuses/promotions, review periods. Culture, management style, formality level, tight or loose structure, relations between departments/projects, turnover rate, position openings, internal candidates.


People {interviewer} needs to know your skills, experience, and competencies, to see how you fit with company people and culture, and to see how much is enough pay and benefits.


behavior-based interview

Interviewer asks about your past experience to show competencies and values, to test technical skills and performance skills {behavior-based interview}. Use accomplishment stories and competency list. You have five competencies, each with five stories.

group interview

Workers ask about your past experience to show competencies and values {group interview} {panel interview}. Use accomplishment stories and competency list. You have five competencies, each with five stories. Present to group and people. Use names and titles.

initial interview

Interviewer reviews job requirements, your resume, and your qualifications {screening interview} {initial interview}. Interviewer asks about your education, skills, and experiences. It lasts 10 to 30 minutes. Use accomplishment stories and competency list. Talk about five competencies, each with five stories. Obtain interviewer name and number.

telephone interview

Interviewer reviews job requirements, your resume, and your qualifications {telephone interview}. Interviewer asks about your education, skills, and experiences. It lasts 10 to 30 minutes. Use accomplishment stories and competency list. Talk about five competencies, each with five stories. Obtain interviewer name and number.


job recommendation

Recommendation letters {job recommendation} {recommendation} can have form.

recommender address

Number and Street. City and State. Telephone. Date.

recipient address

Street Address.


This is recommendation letter for ... I have been his/her teacher and academic advisor for ... years. I have taught him/her ...


His/Her attendance is ...


He/She pays attention and contributes.


His/Her behavior is ...


His/Her creativity is ..., originality is ..., imagination is ..., and ideas are ...


His/Her curiosity is ..., interest is ..., desire to learn is ..., and asking of questions is ...


His/Her overall English ability is ..., writing ability is ..., speaking ability is ..., listening ability is ..., and reading ability is ...

goals and skills

His/Her career goals are ..., strength of career goals is ..., motivation is ..., intellectual ability is ..., work habits are ..., preparation in general is ..., preparation in the major is ..., overall potential is ..., research potential is ..., and teaching potential is ...


His/Her papers and/or homework is on time, neat, accurate, organized, and complete.


His/Her laboratory work is ..., laboratory notebook is ..., skills and competence in laboratory are ..., safety is ..., carefulness is ..., organization is ..., neatness is ..., and extra work was ...

other activities

His/Her outside reading is ..., fitness is ..., sports are ..., leads in ..., participates in ..., awards and honors are ..., dance, music, art, hobbies are ...


He/She can stand competition, accepts criticism, helps others, desires to help others, needs help from others, and has others' respect.

problem solving

His/Her problem solving is ..., problem-solving enjoyment is ..., problem solving motivation is ..., logical thinking is ..., analytical thinking is ..., and synthetic thinking is ...


His/Her responsibility is ..., honesty is ..., work independence is ..., work with others is ..., getting along with others is ..., maturity is ..., self-discipline is ..., self-confidence is ..., and perseverance is ...


His/Her overall writing ability is ..., grammar is ..., organization is ..., neatness is ..., imagination is ..., vocabulary is ..., spelling is ..., style is ..., transitions are ..., conciseness is ..., order is ..., information is ..., and ideas are ...

financial aid

He/She needs financial aid.


I give overall recommendation ... I hope you will accept ... for your program.


Sincerely, X.


job search

People can search for job information {job search} using steps. Study industries, trends, futures, companies, locations, cultures/styles, and sizes. Research trends in your profession or job type and review needed competencies.


Review your employment and personal history and list likes, dislikes, achievements, reasons for leaving, skills/knowledge/roles, and current situation as to age, family, monetary needs, and location. Consider your personal interests, motivations, preferences, characteristics, and values. Preferences are location, work schedule, income, and lifestyle. List everything you like to do. Think about your life over next five years and what you want to achieve by then.


Write job objective. Write positioning statement. Write exit statement. Write accomplishment statements and stories. Write resumé and post it on secure sites. Write cover letter. Write followup letter. Define target market. Define target list. Write marketing plan. Practice interview.


Use Internet and other resources to find jobs. Study target-list companies. Contact people at target companies and at job advertisements. Network with friends, colleagues, neighbors, association members, and so on. Record all contacts: date, contact type, name, title, organization, address, work telephone, home telephone, cell telephone, email, URI, other people suggested, company information, and date and nature of planned next contact. Contact type is letter, phone, email, lunch, conversation, or interview. Try to reach managers that are actually hiring. Interview human resources, workers, managers, and hiring managers. Negotiate salary and benefits. Begin properly at new job.

target market

People can have interest and knowledge in economic sector {target market}.


Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) and North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes identify industries. List industries, which need you, in which you want to work. Learn about possible new technologies or methods.


List locations at which you want to work. Write company size, by revenue or employees. State organization style or culture: startup or established, project or department oriented, ethnic diversity, gender diversity, practical jokes or witty humor, formal or informal dress, many or few management layers, formal or informal authority, and mistake tolerance.


Estimate number of available jobs in target market. Expand market to more related market segments, wider geographic region, or different company sizes and cultures. You need at least ten job applications per month. If there are more than 50 each month, tighten market to limit company number. Consider commute, relocation, objective, company size, and company type.

target companies

Companies {target companies} belong to industries, which produce and use specific goods and services. Companies have needs, goals, and problems. Companies have methods to meet needs, reach goals, and solve problems.


Companies have different operation methods relative to customers and staff. Companies can be hard driving and competitive or easy-going and cooperative. Companies have good will with the public. Companies have important people, who have personalities.


Companies have available and desirable jobs. Jobs at company meet needs, help reach goals, or solve problems. People that work at company have ability to do those jobs, understand jobs, have ideas about how companies function, and have experience in that industry, company type, and job type. Jobs have turnover rate and morale level.


Companies have organizational hierarchy, with politics and problems. Companies are in desirable and undesirable areas. Companies have subsidiaries and/or control other companies.


Visiting and talking to people, by introduction or appointment, can obtain information. Libraries, newspapers, and books have information.


Converse {networking}| with people about targets, industries, and jobs more than 20 times each week until you get job. You typically must talk with more than 100 people to get job. Talk with co-workers, supervisors, subordinates, customers, suppliers, association members, team members, project members, friends, and neighbors. Use letters, resumes, emails, and faxes.

Join industry or professional association. Participate in project or committee.

Check back with mentors and teachers.

Add 10 or more people to contact list each week.

Initial contact can start with people whom you know will return call.

Follow up contacts, every two to four weeks.

Cold call and mail directly to company contacts unreachable otherwise.

networking online

Email contact source, possible shared interest, job objective, and positioning statement. Identify yourself. Use respectable email address.

contact in person

Companies have people {contact person} to whom to talk.

Meet for 30 minutes. Talk about who referred you and relationship and meeting purpose, to discuss industry in location.

Use your job objective, positioning statement, and exit statement. Show marketing plan and targets. Ask for information about people, needs, and finances for targets. Obtain referral name, organization, and title, especially for people in target. Help contact with your own information and referrals. Thank contact.

Follow with letter or email, every two to four weeks.

Inform people that you have contacted their referrals.

Meet with referrals as soon as possible.

initial contact example

Hello M. I was just calling to see how you are doing. I hope everything is going good for you! and your family, too! Let me know if I can help you with anything. If you know of possible jobs for me, I appreciate hearing about them. I will give you commission! I am looking for tech writing jobs in companies that depend on biology or science. Maybe I can earn two salaries at once! Talk to you soon!

closing the offer

Have decision date and meet it {closing the job offer}. Have a written offer or confirmation letter {registered letter}. Do not resign yet. Make sure all references have been checked, all drug and medical tests done, and all clearances received. Do not announce job until final. Search jobs until final.

negotiating the offer

Negotiate after offer {negotiating}. Always give yourself time to have a written offer and prepare a written response. You can negotiate salary, commission, profit sharing, job description, start date, vacations, holidays, authority, budgeting, support, reporting, relocation, insurance, pension, 401K, contract, memberships, stock, expenses, car, discounts, tuition/fees, dining privileges, travel, housing, services, and bonuses. Insurance can be medical, dental, eye, life, disability, and accident. First, negotiate money, then benefits. Negotiate first the present, then the future.

starting at new job

Follow up after starting new job {starting at new job}.

Notify all contacts that you have new job and thank them. Notify other companies, if necessary. Keep contact with many people. Review your job announcement so you can present yourself well: state your goals, address controversies, state relevant or prestigious background, avoid negatives, and stay energetic and enthusiastic.

List questions for supervisor and subordinates, to know problems and expectations. Start to network with co-workers, based on company and industry knowledge. Support others and ask questions. Learn culture, style, and methods: deference to leader or no single leader, argument or consensus, interruption or leave alone, cliques or open groups, competition or collaboration, joking and wit or serious, boastful or modest.

Plan your development. Score with early successful projects and plan for longer-term projects.


skill job

People have job skills {skill, job}.

tasks Skills can be about communicating, coordinating, developing people, managing finances, managing data, managing projects, organizing, planning, selling, marketing, serving, computing, designing, inventing, manufacturing, researching, programming, developing products, teaching, and writing.


Skills involve people, things, or data.

Simple data skills include comparing, sorting, copying, compiling, summarizing, computing, and calculating. Complex data skills include analyzing, problem solving, innovating, finding new ideas in old ones, coordinating data flow, synthesizing, and creating theories or summaries.

Simple people skills include helping, serving, taking instructions or data, and relaying or exchanging information. Complex people skills include counseling, negotiating, ruling, supervising, advising, consulting, instructing, teaching, treating, coaching, leading, persuading, diverting, and handling.

Simple thing skills include tending, watching, loading, unloading, transferring, sorting, driving, and controlling. Complex thing skills include operating, servicing, coordinating, manipulating, organizing, setting up, fixing, working with precision instruments, and designing.


What skills do you have? What problems are you good at solving? What skills do you enjoy? Can you perform simple skills? Can you perform complex skills, involving independence, decision making, and problem solving? Are people, things, or data skills most important to you? What skills do you like to have?


Competencies {competencies} can be about skill and trait combinations. Companies have core competencies. Your competencies match those core competencies. Examples are education, childcare, word processing, project management, department management, international relations, budgeting, planning, auditing, communicating, persuading, market analysis, marketing, databases, object-oriented programming, data security, software development, and product development.


education levels

People can go through nursery school, preschool, kindergarten, elementary-school grades 1 through 5 or 6, middle-school grades 5 or 6 through 8 or 9, high-school grades 9 or 10 through 12, community college, college or university, graduate school or medical school or law school, and post-doctoral study {education levels}.

public school

Schools have many values and goals, teach all subjects, use common language, and have no outside financial support. Society and public opinion influence public schools. Public schools usually have an elected board of education. Authority is among faculty, administration, and governing board. Public schools get money from property taxes and bonds, which are not popular.


Schools are more independent if they have established values and goals, teach specific subjects, use another language, have financial support from alumni or investments, are larger, and are more complex institutions.

primary school

kindergarten or first grade to fifth or sixth grade {primary school}|.

middle school

sixth or seventh grade to eighth or ninth grade {intermediate school} {middle school}.

high school

ninth or tenth grade to twelfth grade {high school}| {normal school} {secondary school}.


People can go to post-secondary schools {academe}| {college} {university}.


preparatory school

High-school student can attend college preparatory school {prep school} {preparatory school}|.

parochial school

People can go to church school {parochial school}|.

industrial arts

Curricula {industrial arts, education}| can emphasize specialization to prepare for work.

liberal arts

Curricula {liberal arts, education}| can emphasize general education.

trade school

People can learn vocation {trade school}|.


educational objective

Education can have objectives {educational objective} {objective, educational} about mental behavior, physical behavior, or attitudes. Objectives include activity or behavior, conditions, required information, required skills, and required skill level. For example, memorizing something is not an objective, but using memorized information to solve problem type is an objective.

objective sections: activity or behavior

Objectives are behaviors, activities, and problems, related to life and experience. Knowing subject is not behavior and is not an objective.

objective sections: conditions

Objectives state conditions.

objective sections: required information

Objectives can require vocabulary and materials. Objectives can require process knowledge.

objective sections: required skills

Objectives can require skills, habits, strength, or health.

objective sections: skill level

People master objectives at satisfactory level, perhaps with success rate 75%.


Objectives have hierarchy, with simple and fundamental ones at bottom, to facilitate structured learning. All objectives have subjects.


Cognitive objectives involve facts, definitions, comprehension, applications, analyses, syntheses, evaluations, and judgments.

Psychomotor objectives involve perceiving situations, readying self for action, planning actions, following instructions, performing instructions, reacting to situations appropriately, adjusting responses after situation changes, and creating new behavior patterns based on themes.

Affective objectives involve paying attention, becoming aware, selecting, reacting to stimulus, selecting reaction, participating, desiring, committing, creating attitudes, comparing or integrating several values, creating life-style, creating value system, maturing, self-actualizing, and building self-confidence [Bloom and Krathwohl, 1956] [Krathwohl et al., 1964].


Curricula have required objectives. Students can select additional objectives, such as career objectives.

art subjects

Subjects are beauty, awe, significance, causes, creativity, and experiences. Topics are painting, sculpture, architecture, music, dance, photography, film, TV, radio, and theater.

biology subjects

Subjects are evolution, ecology, genetics, medicine, zoology, botany, classification, biochemistry, and internal medicine.

business subjects

Subjects are manufacturing, engineering, administration, personnel, finance, advertising, marketing, and accounting.

computer subjects

Subjects are word processing, spreadsheet, database, files, and directories.

economics subjects

Subjects are economic systems, international trade, supply and demand, growth, inflation, productivity, margin, multiplier, and interest. Students understand money, checking, savings, and investment. Students learn to be smart consumers. Students understand insurance.

education subjects

Subjects are evidence, proof, theories, models, experimentation, formal systems, operations, systems, education, problem solving, assumptions, speculation, and similarities in structures, functions, and models.

geography subjects

Subjects are continents, countries, cities, mountains, rivers, lakes, and oceans.

history subjects

Subjects are all eras and civilizations, inventions, people, arts, battles, and leaders.

language subjects

Subjects are linguistics, communications, semantics, English, criticism, literature, symbol systems, metaphor, simile, analogy, fact, opinion, inference, judgment, emotion, command, persuasion, outlining, language uses, instructions, history, function, structure, induction, deduction, propaganda, questions, answers, comparison, contrast, chronological order, point-by-point analogy, process steps, illustration, observation, description, classification, discrimination, controversy, idea hierarchies, note-taking skills, library skills, maps, drawing, classic literature, topic sentences, and vocabulary.

References include title, author, publisher, location, date, and page number.

Writing forms are letters and reports. Writing involves analysis, has style, has format, has context, and uses medium. Writing balances abstraction and concreteness. Writing has mood, purpose, and attitude. Genres are novel, play, story, or poem. Mode is romantic, tragic, comic, ironic, or melodramatic. Conflict is between characters. Time and place are setting. Word-difficulty level is diction. Point of view is person.

Work can have formal or informal style. Work can have irony of structure or attitude. Work can use symbolism of sex or power. Work has plot. Work has theme.

law subjects

Subjects are basic, Roman, continental, English, and American law.

mathematics subjects

Subjects are game theory, probability, statistics, calculus, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and logic. Students know function and relation types, including trigonometric, power, and exponential functions. Problem types are ratio, proportion, percent, roots, exponents, logarithms, motion, time, work, interest, length, perimeter, area, volume, fraction conversion, fraction adding, fraction multiplying, vector addition, vector multiplication, and unit conversion. Understand checking and savings accounts, cooking, and budgeting. Know symmetry types, congruence, similar figures, and geometric theorems. Know about accuracy, precision, and units. Read charts, graphs, and tables. Be able to measure.

philosophy subjects

Subjects are Eastern philosophy, Western philosophy, epistemology, aesthetics, metaphysics, politics, ethics, values, morals, existence, life, knowledge, justice, equality, freedom, conservation, ecology, honor, mercy, courage, loyalty, virtue, tragedy, discipline, love, conformity, individuality, compromise, principles, generalization, discrimination, optimism, pessimism, belief, skepticism, action, contemplation, classicism, romanticism, progress, tradition, humans, nature, authority, independence, conformity, independence, belief, faith, happiness, duty, materialism, idealism, criticism, reasoning, consistency, and completeness.

politics subjects

Subjects are voting, juries, taxes, laws, civilization, state, democracy, aristocracy, monarchy, totalitarianism, dictatorship, leadership, ideology, power, prestige, status, hunger, poverty, disease, catastrophe, violence, citizen rights, responsibilities, change, change rate, change causes, progress causes, war, strategy, future, literacy, rights, duties, pollution, resources, wealth, growth, welfare, inflation, and urban affairs.

practical affairs subjects

Subjects are general laws, checking, savings, credit card, home insurance, car insurance, life insurance, death, driving laws, safety, cooking, clothes, appliances, hardware, cars, sports, games, rent, buy, reproduction, childcare, drugs, diseases, health, nutrition, safety, banking, law, family life, children, first aid, CPR, consumerism, and health.

psychology subjects

Subjects are personality, personal feelings, conscious states, "peak" experiences, maturation, mental development, curiosity, habits, variety, pleasures, pains, feelings, moods, wonder, humor, intuition, discovery, emotions, sexuality, physical development, self, life style, roles, models, goals, service to others, mental control mechanisms, sacrifice, devotion, charm, charisma, grace, elegance, friendship, dependency, independence, love, approval, physical contact, children, humility, biofeedback, drugs, meditation, sleep, ecstasy, creativity, brainstorming, synectics, design parameter search, appearance, performance, quality, size, functions, substitutes, principles, value, important parts, important activities, features, weight, shape, texture, imagination, intuition, visualization, insight, human feelings, emotions, motivations, goals, human concerns and interests, human reactions to change and crises, death, war, marriage, divorce, deal with everything non-violently, feelings, laughing, intuition, wonder, mystery, pleasure, pain, curiosity, ecstasy, love, hate, anger, sadness, how people mature, and habits.

reasoning subjects

Students can estimate answers, know problem solving steps, use them on problems, evaluate other solutions, use deductive reasoning, use inductive reasoning, make model, simulate situation, use quantitative analysis, and make decision. Subjects are thinking problems, paradoxes, contradictions, generalization, and principles.

religion subjects

Subjects are theology, gods, life after death, reincarnation, extrasensory perception, and mythology.

science subjects

Subjects are principles, applications, scientific method, hypothesis formation, observation, statistics, scientific attitudes, laboratory skills, record keeping, patience, scientific-article writing, induction, deduction, simplicity, physics, chemistry, astronomy, and earth science. Scientific attitudes are objectivity, need for truth, idea tolerance, openness to criticism, desire to publish results for confirmation and use, no ideology, curiosity, patience, carefulness, desire to serve, desire to help others, thought about work consequences, cooperation with others rather than confrontation or competition, internationalism, social-class unimportance, humbleness, thought in terms of systems and interrelations, and broad knowledge.

sociology subjects

Subjects are social responsibility, famous lives, patriarchy, matriarchy, philosopher, athlete, soldier, aristocrat, artist, scientist, engineer, monk, minister, politician, playboy, partygoer, volunteer, artisan, group types, communication patterns, health, food, reproduction, marriage, children, death, socialization, self-fulfillment, systems, rules, roles, rights, main words, evolution, symbols, effects, presumptions, alternatives, necessity, relations to other systems, classes, specialization, personal vs. group rights, change, conservation, travel, anthropology, cultures, human-society structures, and society and people change causes.

technology subjects

Subjects are how things work and computers.

writing subjects

Subjects are sentence types, paragraph types, report types, audiences, spelling, and grammar. Sentence types are simple, complex, and compound statements, questions, commands, and exclamations. Paragraph types are narrative, process, comparison, contrast, illustration, description, deduction, and induction. Report types are letters, three-point papers, summaries, resumes, and applications.

scientific method

People use several thinking and knowing methods, but most scientists use one method {scientific method objectives}. The scientific method includes the following steps, in sequence. Formulate hypothesis after reading and discussion. Design experiment to test the hypothesis, and control for errors and extraneous factors. Perform experiment and analyze results. Attempt to fit results into larger theory. The scientific method involves the following steps: Information/Problem, Hypothesis, Experiment, Results, Conclusions, and Applications.


educational outcomes

Education has results {educational outcomes}.

bad: anxiety

Teachers can reduce anxiety by stating on what grade depends and how they calculate it.

bad: questionable rewards

School can reward memorizing. School can reward passivity and conforming to others' demands. School can reward looking good, getting by, cheating, and trickiness. School can reward putting down others and tattling. Schools can seek perfection in unworthy tasks, so perfection is not wise in those tasks, only satisfactory performance. Teachers can be the enemy, and students can feel like prisoners.

bad: failure

Failure stimulates hatred for success. Failure promotes competition, rather than cooperation. Educational tracking can equate with failure.

bad: repetition

Repeating without purpose can lower motivation. Strict control can lower motivation. Forced work can lower motivation. Repetition can be useless to learning.

bad: not real

School puts children or teenagers in environment with mostly other school children or teenagers. Such environment can become separate from main culture and is likely to be immature culture.

information handling

Allow oneself to have stimulation or to observe. Respond to stimulation, seek stimulation, and participate. Value stimulation and understand why it is worthwhile. Appreciate stimulation, find reasons why it is valuable, and relate reasons to each other. Criticize stimulation types, develop consistent value set, and use philosophy to evaluate and compare them. Write ideas about stimuli. Criticize and evaluate good and bad stimulus attributes. Create something new, or improve something existing, to make stimuli.

information emotions

Get satisfaction from stimuli. Desire more stimuli. Want to read and learn about stimuli. Want to create, and so stimulate self. Imitate and accept stimuli. Have feelings about stimuli.


Students need to practice being responsible. Rather than forcing or telling, students choose behavior from successful and appropriate alternatives. Rather than telling what and when to study, students plan their educations and discipline themselves to meet their goals. Rather than imposing rules, students make rules to allow everyone to study and behave cooperatively.


Teachers do not penalize bad work, only reward good work. Teachers reward students immediately at first, and then after delay and more randomly. Teachers praise promptness, organization, cooperation, creativity, decisions, communication skills, appearance, progress, personality, responsibility, and academics.


After successfully completing standard one-subject courses, people receive official documents {certificate}| from institutions.


After successfully completing standard high-school, community-college, or college courses, people receive official documents {diploma}| from institutions.

fellowship in education

People can receive grants {fellowship, grant}| {grant, fellowship} for teaching or research.

6-Education-School Catalog

school catalog

School catalogs {school catalog} have admissions, attendance, cost, curriculum, and map information.


Catalogs have name, motto, location, dates, corporation or not, institution type, purpose, history, academic year, quarter or semester system, holidays, days, and hours.


Catalogs have requirements, admissions essay, English language test, admissions tests, interview, notification date, admissions fee, and registration fee.


Catalogs have attendance record, tardy, excused absence, unexcused absence, illness, disability, personal problems, bereavement, pregnancy, child care, and parent care.


Catalogs have size, length, lecture, recitation/seminar, laboratory, field work, tutorials, outside reading, and creative activity.


Catalogs have tuition, fees, deposit, installment plan, late fees, withdrawal, reenrollment, reimbursement, housing, food, health insurance and medical care, books and materials, total costs, loans, scholarships, and work programs.

course descriptions

Catalogs have syllabuses for all courses.

course descriptions: electives

Institutions do not require some courses.


Catalogs have fire, earthquake, storm, explosion, poison, war, doctor, nurse, first aid, ambulance, insurance, shots, and medicines information.


Catalogs have classrooms, libraries, arts, sports, publishing center, job evaluation and placement center, local and national transportation, local arts and sports, dormitories, and eateries.


Catalogs have names, addresses, telephones, offices, office hours, courses taught, degrees, honors and awards, professional societies, publications, exhibitions, and performances.

faculty: responsibilities

Faculty keep office hours, allow for consultations, hold student-teacher conferences, write recommendations, record lates and absences, order materials, develop course syllabi, create lesson plans, account for keys, and attend faculty meetings, Graduation Day, and other school functions. They have personal knowledge of, and respect for, students, as well as concern for student progress. They can remove people from class for cause. Faculty members have salary scale and benefits. They can receive tenure. They need time for further education.


Catalog has grading policy, meeting objectives satisfactorily, failure and repeated failure, student-teacher conference, and standards.


Catalogs have graduation requirements, units, units in major, units in minor, lower class units, upper class units, graduate units, and grade point average, credit for work at other accredited institutions, method for getting such credit, Advanced Placement or exam credit, and final exams.


Catalogs have library card, fines, lost materials, checkout periods, reserve, library records and catalog, circulation, reference, periodicals, connections to other libraries, and book ordering.


Catalogs have copying and duplication, test security, audio-visual equipment and reservations, telephoning, counseling, parking and vehicles, parking permit, parking spaces, other transportation, visitors and guests, and lost and found.


Catalogs have behavior and conduct, drugs, language, sexual matters, crime, religion, campus organizations, cheating, law breaking, school rule breaking, suspension, clubs, student government, and student code.


Catalogs have principles, vocabulary, problems, processes, reasons how and why, history and people, instruments and techniques, unanswered questions, writing requirements, speaking requirements, project, research project, internship, volunteer work, time normally needed to complete, and objectives.

liability release

Catalogs have liability release against institution and officers.


Catalogs have standard works in all fields.



Teachers require many skills {teaching}. Teachers have tasks relative to students, administrative tasks, and disciplinary tasks.


Skills are subject knowledge, general knowledge, student knowledge, teaching excitement, subject excitement, student excitement, language skill, acting skill, problem-solving skill, recall skill, people skills, patience, humor, ethics, and physical stamina. Perhaps, place for learning needs more than one person per student to fulfill all these roles.

student age

Teachers teach grade level that they like best.


Teachers can teach better if they use descriptive, predictive, and problem oriented communication, rather than evaluative, prescriptive, and control-oriented communication.


Students typically learn just enough to feel satisfaction. High expectations can raise level required for satisfaction.

group feeling

Teachers establish group feeling. Teachers encourage cooperation. Teachers try to make classroom less inhibiting, passive, obedient, and controlled.

subject to be taught

Teacher knows one subject well. Students take one subject at a time, rather than five, so they can concentrate. Teachers tell why they like subject. Teachers include subject history and pertinent biographies. Teachers relate knowledge to student lives, current and future.

motivation techniques

New experiences with low anxiety are good for motivation. Participation is good for motivation. Desire for competence is motivator. Identification with model, desire to be with and please other students, and belonging are good for motivation. Knowing reasons for doing something is good for motivation. Motivation depends on personal needs and desires, which can extend and integrate into larger world, past and present.

motivation: wants

People want to have meaningful lives and find meaning in everything they do. People want to have values that work in all situations. People want to have power over their lives, to be able to move toward their goals. People want to have pleasure in their activities, because activities involve their own goals and they can succeed.

motivation: rewards

Teachers use positive rewards to motivate. Teachers praise students. Teachers send notes home, with positive messages, about good behavior.

teacher movement

Teachers move about, rather than sit behind desk.


Teachers ask questions at all difficulty levels. Teachers direct question toward named student that can answer question. Teachers wait three seconds for answer. Teachers keep working with student until he or she reaches acceptable answer. Teachers ask other students to paraphrase what someone else just said. Question directs attention.

teacher-student relations

Teacher writing ability, vocabulary, and so on, is much greater than student skills. Teachers and students are not equals. Teachers are like parents. Students act like good sons or daughters. Teachers know which students work better alone and which students work better with others. Teachers know how pressure affects students. Teachers know student motivations. Teachers know student values. Teachers know which sense students use best. Teachers know what times of day students are most alert. Teachers know how noise affects students. Teachers know assignments that students do best. Teachers know which study place is best for students. Teachers know how students answers questions. Teachers know student risk-taking. Teachers do not fear students. Teachers do not stereotype students. Teachers treat students as individuals.

academic freedom

Teachers have right {academic freedom}| to teach, study, research, and publish based on their conscience, as long as it does not affect others' rights.

principal of school

Principals {principal, education}| need to be autonomous, have training, and develop shared goals for teachers.


Universities offer lifetime faculty privileges {tenure}|, to encourage independent thinking.


People {teacher} can instruct others.


Teachers have complete education, can discuss all intellectual ideas, can analyze problems, know about world, and continue to learn all new knowledge.


Teachers are sympathetic, understanding, and kind. Teachers are polite. Teachers are fair. Teachers set good example in habits, ideas, and speech. Teachers show respect for others. Teachers emphasize positive values. Teachers show enthusiasm. Teachers use eye contact, student names, and gestures. Teachers act same toward everyone. Teachers, and parents, have emotional involvement with students. Personal observation tests understanding and ability to use knowledge. Teachers are open to questions and conversation. Teachers provide experience, reading, and discussion. Teachers teach reasons, causes, comparisons, examples, and connections. Teachers let students make choices from acceptable alternatives. Teachers do not ask many questions but should express emotions and feelings. Teachers answer embarrassing questions formally and truthfully.


Teachers give equal time to students. Teachers make eye contact, talk loud enough, talk slow enough, and use inflection.


Education professionals, like doctors, have student, intern, resident, and doctor levels. Teachers provide either individual help and/or group sessions. Teachers bill school for services. Teachers choose working hours and vacations. Teachers do research. Teachers go to conferences and seminars. High school teachers associate with local college, and grade school teachers with local high school. Teachers perform professional teaching duties, while school administrators do rest.


educational testing

Tests {educational testing}| can be multiple choice, true-false, matching, or completion, for easier grading and higher objectivity. Tests typically test memorization, not understanding or ability. Tests can be essays, for writing practice.


Diagnostic tests are at beginning.


Achievement tests are at end.


Questions for students can be easy or allow opinion expressions.


Anxiety can cause poor test performance. Pop quizzes can cause anxiety.


Tests can penalize slow and careful students.

reliable test

Tests {reliable test} can be repeatable with same results.

valid test

Test {valid test} can measure the proper thing. Validity can depend on ability to predict future performance, similarity to other tests, subject coverage, or completeness and consistency.


thinking in education

Students can form ideas and hypotheses and support them {thinking, education}.


Thinking skills are deciding, judging, assessing priorities, and scanning deeply and widely. Thinking happens mostly at perception stage, not analyzing stage.


Follow written and spoken directions, instructions, and questions for applications and interviews. Remember main discussion points.


Recognize fallacies, argument tricks, persuasion techniques, and fact and opinion differences. Recognize communication patterns. Find system goals. Find methods. Realize personal feelings and emotions. Analyze group, system, or passage for efficiency in meeting goals or using methods.

cognitive skills

Speak, write, draw, act out, perform gross and fine motor movements, and otherwise express self. Read, listen, perceive, and comprehend expressions. Reason, plan, and decide among choices. Create, be open, inquire, tolerate, act independently, choose goals and tasks, complete goals and tasks, and control self. Share, cooperate, lead, follow, and plan together.

thinking levels

Repeat, describe, or perform instruction. Classify, create concept, organize, recognize, compare, or recall. Restate, illustrate, discriminate, or apply principle. Explain, predict, estimate, infer, interpret data, criticize, or solve problem. Discover, hypothesize, find new problem from old problem, generalize, create, or evaluate.

Higher level is more independent of immediate stimuli and uses more models, rules, and verbalization.

thinking levels: alternate

Recall terms. Recall facts. Recall rules or principles. Perform processes and procedures. Reorganize, paraphrase, summarize, and give examples. Analyze, find relationships, and discover essential attributes or relations. Infer, find consequences, and extend knowledge in new directions. Use rules and principles to solve problems, and apply problem solution to new situation or context. Create new hypothesis or theory, and relate diverse knowledge together. Evaluate and judge idea using criteria or standards, and find evidence to support the judgment.

memory skills

Perceive relationships. Pay attention. Concentrate. Put in sequences. Memorize.

reading textbooks

Read chapter and section headings. Read whole lesson very fast. Read lesson slowly, taking notes. Review lesson and notes. Ask questions about lesson facts. Recite lesson summary. Note important words and their meanings. Know principles and rules. Work problems using rules and discover problem patterns and solution methods. Work out problems in short steps to outline method. Analyze assignment style, technique, theme, and facts.

Read fiction and nonfiction at grade level. Know book features and their uses. Relate reading to previous knowledge. Understand, summarize, recognize purposes in, recognize styles in, and criticize passage.


Review subject in short bursts, separated by rests.


Learn the most-important basic information and then add detail. Know what is the most-important information.

Vocabulary typically is the most-important information.

time for study

Process requires time to manipulate symbols and language and so gain understanding. Teaching requires time for planning. Teaching requires time for more, professional training. Teaching requires time for practice.


The best way to learn and remember information is to understand it. Understanding means that people can predict effects from causes and reasons. Understanding requires declarative learning, not just procedural learning.

divergent thinking

Generating alternatives {divergent thinking} can change perceptions.


Distractions, conflicts, anxiety, and interruptions make memorizing {memorizing}| hard. Memorizing practice does not help future memorizing ability.

point-to-point thinking

With younger children, each point is starting-point for next idea, and so on {point-to-point thinking}.

scientific mode of thought

Scientific thought {scientific mode of thought} can have objectivity, passion for truth, tolerance of others' ideas, openness to criticism, desire to share research results, ideology avoidance, international thinking, and scientific method.


writing in education

Education can teach writing {writing}.


Written-work properties are subject, intention, audience, form, and style.

properties: character

Written works have characters, including hero, protagonist, antagonist, sidekick, narrator, and supporting characters.

properties: conflict

Written works have conflict, such as person vs. God, person vs. nature, person vs. others, or person vs. self.

properties: emphasis

Emphasis uses repetition or placement at sentence end or first word. Passive voice shows agent is not important. Repetition repeats important words, restates same idea in several ways, uses same subject in several sentences, or repeats sentence patterns.

properties: parts

Written works have title, author, publisher, location, date, and page number.

properties: purpose

Writing has purpose and intention, such as problem solving, persuading, communicating knowledge, creating emotion, describing, illustrating, reminiscing, reporting, directing to do something, explaining, criticizing, reflecting, giving opinion, or amusing.

properties: register

Writing involves different relationships between speaker/writer and hearer/reader {register, writing}, such as friendly, formal, familiar, polite, threatening, subservient, or authoritative.

properties: relations

Events and objects can associate by parts and/or functions; patterns; causes and effects; or purposes, moral issues, and rules. Binary relations for contact are attached/unattached, linked/not linked, touching/separate, and adjacent/non-adjacent. Binary relations for space are cover/covered, on/underneath, in/out, inside/outside, over/under, beside/beside, right/left, front/back, top/bottom, above/below, side/side, around or surrounding/in, and surround/surrounded. Binary relations for time are simultaneous/different, before/after, slightly before/slightly after, and long/short. Relations include compass points, celestial-sphere points, coordinates, and time amount.

properties: symbolism

Written works have symbolism, such as sexual symbols or power symbols.

properties: tone

Writing has attitude {tone, writing}, such as irony, satire, affection, reverence, amusement, coldness, enthusiasm, cynicism, reserve, passion, or detachment. Attitude can be toward subject or other characters.

properties: voice

Writing has unique author and viewpoint {voice, viewpoint}, such as active person, sensitive intelligent person, or bossy stressed person, which readers infer from diction, tone, and register.


Writing has form and organization. Rough plans have thesis, hows, whys, examples, and details, in logical order, in topic outline or sentence outline.

Main-sentence thesis statement is about main idea. There are other ideas. Ideas have details.

form: organization

Order is by chronological, spatial, order-of-importance, comparison-and-contrast, cause-and-effect, or part-by-part ordering.

Induction goes from specific to general. Deduction uses syllogism or other logic.

Order can go from least important to most important. Chronology can go forward or backward. Spatial relations can be above/below, front/back, right/left, diagonal, and so on.

Function, behavior, thing, or idea comparison can be in two blocks or can alternate. Function, behavior, thing, or idea contrast can be in two blocks or can alternate.

Process or procedure uses steps over time, cause and effect, or importance order.

Classification into smaller or larger classes can be by parts, functions, activities, or theory.

Cause and effect can use immediate causes, remote causes, sufficient causes, necessary causes, contributory causes, causes present or not, cause usually the same or not, frequent causes, or effect types.

Definition can be by class belonged to, similar classes, or classes contained in, plus distinguishing characteristics.

Example or illustration gives detail.

Narration tells story.

Extended analogy shows similarities.

Description or observation can distinguish characteristics, features, behaviors, and contexts.

Problem solving uses steps.

form: types

Prose writing types include exposition, description, argument, narration, summary, and fiction.

Forms are abstract, acceptance speech, accident report, address jury, adventure writing, advertisement, advice, afterword, agenda, allegory, analysis essay, annals, annotation, annual report, apology, appeal, application, and autobiography. Forms are ballad, bibliography, billboard, biography, birth announcement, blank verse, book review, briefing, brochure, bulletin board, business letter, business proposal, and bylaws. Forms are campaign speech, caption, cartoon, cause-and-effect essay, chant, character sketch, charter, cheer, children's story, cinquain, classification essay, classified advertisement, comeback speech, comedy, comic strip, community calendar, comparison-contrast essay, complaint, concrete poem, constitution, constructive speech, consumer report, contract, court decision, credo, critical analysis, critical essay, and curriculum. Forms are daydream, debate, definition, definition essay, detective story, dialogue, diary, diatribe, dictionary entry, directions, docudrama, dramatic narrative, dream analysis, and dream report. Forms are editorial, elegy, encyclopedia article, epic, epic poem, epigram, epilogue, epistolary fiction, epitaph, essay, eulogy, experiment, explication, and exposé. Forms are fable, fabliau, family history, fantasy, filmstrip, flyer, foreword, formal essay, fortune cookie, found poem, and free verse. Forms are Gothic tale, graduation speech, grant application, and greeting card. Forms are haiku, headline, history, horoscope, how-to essay, and human-interest story. Forms are essays, instructions, insults, interview questions, introductions, invitations, and itineraries. Forms are jingle, joke, and journal entry. Forms are keynote address. Forms are lament, law, learning log, letter to editor, libretto, limerick, love letter, and lyric poem. Forms are magazine article, manifesto, manual, memoir, memorandum, memorial plaque, menu, minutes, monologue, monument inscription, movie review, mystery, and myth. Forms are narrative poem, nature guide, news story, nomination speech, nonsense rhyme, novel, novella, and nursery rhyme. Forms are obituary, ode, one-act play, oracle, and ottava rima. Forms are packaging copy, parable, paragraph, paraphrase, parody, party platform, pastoral, personal essay, personal letter, persuasive essay, petition, play, police report, political advertisement, prediction, preface, press release, process essay, proclamation, profile, prologue, proposal, prose poem, protocol, and public service announcement. Forms are quatrain. Forms are radio play, radio spot, rap, reader's theater, rebuttal, recipe, recommendation, referendum question, research report, resignation, restaurant review, resume, riddle, roast, and romance. Forms are sales letter, schedule, science fiction, science writing, screenplay, sermon, short story, sign, situation comedy, slide show, slogan, song lyric, sonnet, specification, speech, spell, sports story, statute, storyboard, stream-of-consciousness, summary, summation, survey, and sutra. Forms are tall tale, tanka, technical writing, terza rima, test, thank-you note, theater review, toast, tour guide story, tragedy, translation, treaty, and TV advertisement. Forms are villanelle and vows. Forms are want ad, wanted poster, warrant, and wish list.


Numerical grading system can be digital, based on accumulated positive and negative points. Minus is for misspelling, bad grammar, bad punctuation, redundancy, ambiguity, no transition, incorrect transition, extraneous phrase or sentence, faulty logic, over-generalization, copying, unattributed quote, plagiarism, no opening paragraph theme or purpose, and unorganized paragraph. Teacher can use check mark for good idea, example, analogy, definition, explanation, logical deduction, comparison, contrast, or process. Extra checks are for exceptional ideas or phrasing. Attempted things that did not work out receive no mark. Score can be sum of minus and check marks, or number of independent clauses divided into sum of minus and check marks.

audience for writing

Writing has intended readers {audience, writing}|. Audiences differ at occasions for praising, blaming, honoring, dishonoring, or exhorting {ceremonial audience}; accusing, defending, or arguing {legal audience}; advising, persuading, or explaining {deliberative audience}; or entertaining or amusing {amused audience}. Do not underestimate reader. Think about reader responses.

body of writing

Writing has a main part {body, writing}.


Develop thesis. Use examples, details, comparisons, cases, histories, causes, effects, facts, figures, testimony, quotations, figures of speech, analogies, impressions, opinions, arguments, theories, concepts, experiences, traditions, proverbs, definitions, parts, functions, etymology, deduction, induction, statistics, narration, evolution, history, before, after, good, bad, goal, and purpose.


Order paragraphs by time, space, and question to answer, from effect to cause, from particular to general, as in induction, or from general to particular, as in deduction.


Make each detail stand for detail category, so reader imagination can extrapolate. Use perceptions relevant to subject. Underline, bold, or italicize important words. Avoid opinions and emotions unless they are facts.

diction in writing

Writing has word choice {diction, writing}|, which determines tone.

difficulty level

Written work has diction or difficulty level {difficulty level} {level of difficulty, writing}.


Written works have types {genre, writing}|, such as novel, short story, novella, or novelette.

irony in writing

Plot or character can change {irony of structure} or reader idea, prediction, or appearance can change {irony of attitude} {irony, writing}.

metaphor in writing

Metaphors, similes, allusions, and personifications {metaphor, writing} can embellish writing. Do not mix metaphors, allusions, similes, or personifications. Do not use similar words with different meanings. Do not use antonyms backwards. Do not use references that not understood. Remember all word denotations and connotations.

mode in writing

Written works have mode {mode, writing}, such as romantic, tragic, comic, ironic, or melodramatic.


Writing has an outline {outline, writing}.

Introduction states problem, background information, and thesis or topic.

Thesis clarification has definitions, ideas, included things, and excluded things.

Thesis proof uses comparisons and contrasts, deductions, analogies, inductions, facts, examples, and causes and effects.

Thesis reexamination answers problems about thesis correctness one by one, rejects possible alternative theses as not good, and restates thesis. Analysis suggests new ideas and imagines new problems. New information, not yet available, can be necessary to understand problem more thoroughly.

Conclusion contains moral, tag, or another reference to thesis.

paragraph writing

Paragraphs {paragraph, writing} are four or five sentences long, with topic sentence first. Paragraphs are about one idea, with details. Focus and stress are at same place in paragraph. Paragraph styles are descriptive, narrative, persuasive, and expository, which includes definition, comparison, analogy, and cause and effect. Do not mix paragraph styles in one paragraph. Vary paragraph styles.

plot in writing

Written works have plot {plot, writing}, with introduction, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution.

point of view in writing

Written works have viewpoint {point of view, writing} {viewpoint, writing}, including first person or third person {voice, writing}. Always use same voice and viewpoint in all sentences.

revision in writing

After writing, revise text {revision, writing}.

scientific article

Articles {scientific article} can have the following parts, in sequence.


Abstract or summary gives main results.


Introduction includes investigation history, literature citations, background information, experiment or article purpose, and experiment hypothesis or article theme.


Materials and methods section includes procedures, equipment, and supplies.


Results section includes actual control and test group data, data summaries, figures, and tables.


Discussion includes reasons for errors, ideas for new experiments, and speculations.


Conclusion includes hypothesis restatement, modified by experiment results.


Reference section gives references, in standard format and order.

sentence structure

Use basic sentence structure {sentence structure}: subject-verb-complement-adverb.

sentence in writing

Avoid clichés, commonplace words, and slang {sentence, writing}. Change simple sentences to complex ones by coordination, subordination, or nominalization. Do not nominalize too much. Do not use unnecessary introductions. Do not use redundancy. Replace unneeded verb or noun phrases with one word. Substitute words for phrases or clauses.

stress in sentence

Put the most-important sentence part at end {stress, sentence} {sentence stress}, where stress is. Emphasize most-important part. Use short subject phrase, because it has no stress.

style of writing

Written works have style {style, writing}, such as formal or informal. Writing has style, such as intimate, casual, informal, or formal. Simplify complex constructions. Never use ponderous style. Do not refer to self but do use personal experiences. Continually emphasize theme. Be sensitive to nuances and feelings. Be alert for additional good thoughts. Act like writing is search for truth. Do not assert truth as such. Illustrate thinking process. Be aware of real time and emotional time. Use foreshadowing to add suspense.

subject of writing

Writing is about topics {subject, writing} {topic, writing}. Use subject in which interested. Use only material related to subject. Choose subject part that students can answer in allotted time and in reasonable number of pages and that uses available resources.

theme of writing

Written works have themes {theme, writing}, about nobility, patience, virtue, wisdom, and other valued ideas.

thesis statement

Organize ideas using sentence {thesis statement}| about main idea. State thesis in 15 to 25 words, including main reason it is true or believable, or state purpose or goal. Use no ambiguity. Restrict thesis to one thing. Do not make thesis too general. Do not mix fact and opinion. Thesis is typically first-paragraph last sentence. State thesis meaning. Use image to illustrate thesis.

transition in writing

Connect paragraphs and parts {transition, writing}. Use good sentence-connecting words near sentence beginning.

vocabulary in writing

Students know standard vocabulary {vocabulary, writing}. Students know vocabularies used in academic subjects. Students know precise word meanings and use words correctly.


grammar in writing

Use good grammar {grammar, writing}. Use parallel sentences or words that are same speech parts. Use introductory words, which, that, and concluding words correctly. Use few "of" and "which".

noun usage

Use concrete nouns. Do not use many abstract nouns. Use articles, adjectives, head nouns, and simple nouns in noun phrases. Use all cases for noun phrases: subjective, objective, possessive, etc. Use sensory and specific, not common or general, words.


Use intransitive, copula, semi-transitive, and transitive verbs in verb phrases. Use more verbs and fewer nouns.


Do not use passive voice much, because it focuses badly.

parallelism in writing

Use parallel sentences {balanced sentence}, parallel parts followed by main clause {climatic sentence} {periodic sentence}, or similar sentences with coordination or modification {parallelism, writing}|.


writing ideas

For ideas {writing ideas}, use cluster chart, freewriting, pro-and-con chart, story map, and time line. Ask questions. Analyze into parts and functions. Use imagination to change things. Assume role. Brainstorm with others. Discuss with others. Make sets and overlap them, in Venn diagrams.

cluster chart

Cluster additional objects and events {cluster chart}.


Use random thoughts {freewriting}.

pro-and-con chart

List positives and negatives {pro-and-con chart}.

story map

List setting, characters, plot, conflict, mood, and theme {story map}.

time line

Make linear history {time line}.


writing process

Writing has a process {writing process}. Works have topics. Works have readers, such as writer, friends or relatives, teacher, professional group, or community. Works have goals, such as expressing feelings or opinions, providing information, persuading, or entertaining. Works have form, such as article, short story, novel, essay, or poem. Works have purposes and ideas {content}. Works have consistent ordering and transitions {organization}. Works have mood and distinctive language.


First writing stage {prewriting} {writing plan} is choosing topic, audience, purpose, and form; researching ideas; and organizing ideas.


Second writing stage {drafting} is writing first complete work.

evaluating writing

Third writing stage {evaluating, writing} is judging and indicating where to modify, by writer or editor.


Fourth writing stage {revising} is revising content, organization, style, and expression, by adding, cutting, replacing, and moving.


Fifth writing stage {proofreading}| is correcting spelling, grammar, usage, capitalization, and punctuation errors, to make final copy.


Sixth writing stage {publishing}| is presenting work to audience.



Symbols {punctuation} separate words.


Capitalize titles, works, people names, object names, places, organizations, brands, and events. Capitalize first sentence words.


Italics or underlining is for emphasis, long-work titles, and foreign-language phrases.


Semicolons can mark ends of phrases or clauses that include commas and ends of independent clauses without conjunctions. Parentheses can mark extra or less important information. Apostrophes can mark possession or contraction.

quotation marks

Quotation marks are for titles or short works, such as songs, essays, short poems, and parts, and sections. Quotation marks are for direct quotations. Single quotation marks enclose direct quotations inside direct quotations.

end mark

Periods, question marks, and exclamation points {end mark} can mark sentence ends and show sentence types.


Symbols {comma} can mark pauses, interruptions, introductories, series items {serial comma}, conjunction first-clause endings, non-restrictive phrase and clause beginnings and ends, and appositives.

colon for list

Symbols {colon for list} can introduce lists or long statements.


Symbols {dash} can mark breaks in thought, substituting for "namely", "that is", "in other words", and "i.e.". Hyphens can link words in compound nouns, adjectives, and adverbs.


Symbol pairs {brackets} can mark corrections or comments.


Symbols {ellipsis} can mark pauses or omissions.


work and education

Education teaches both labor and general skills and so affects labor force {work, education}. Students learn about all careers and work types, including skilled labor, unskilled labor, management, professions, and service jobs. Students learn relative abilities and potentials.


Attitudes toward work include punctuality, quality, neatness, grooming, confidence, responsibility, honesty, observation, thought, cleanliness, desire to learn, desire to help others, and perseverance.


Basic skills for work include communicating, writing reports, following directions, giving directions, writing applications, writing resume, using good grammar, having good vocabulary, and using mathematics.


Students can do internships and perform volunteer work.


Universities perform research and development in basic science, from which industry develops technology.

efficiency in life

For maximum efficiency {efficiency, life} {work efficiency}, select goals and activities carefully, place them in importance order, and then list things to do each day, in priority order. For required tasks, do once, at most appropriate time. Do not go back.

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Date Modified: 2015.0704

Description: 6-Education